15 most viewed professional articles« Back
1. Self-fulfilling prophecy: the phenomenon and its implications
Abstract: The article presents the phenomenon of self-fulfilling prophecy and provides some critical thoughts about the possibilities of using it constructively as well as preventing its possible detrimental effects. The phenomenon is first presented historicaly: from the first definition by Merton, through Rosenthal's classical Pygmalion study that brought the topic into social psychology, to an analysis of the extremeness of both positive and negative reactions that the study spawned. This is followed by an overview of modern research regarding the existence of self-fulfilling prophecy; its magnitude, practical importance, and prevalence. Then, Rosenthal's Ten-arrow model and Four-factor theory that aim to explain the factors and mechanism of self-fulfilling prophecy are described. The presentation is completed by an analysis of cultural-historical as well as paradigmatic context that importantly contributed to the importance of self-fulfilling prophecy research in social psychology. In conclusion, some possibilities for diminishing the prevalence of the phenomenon are presented. In regard to this, the role of awareness is especially emphasized, both in the sense of being aware of phenomenon's existence as well as in the sense of understanding its workings.
Keywords: self-fulfilling prophecy, Pygmalion effect, social reality, social constructivism, social psychology
2. Gender stereotypes and discrimination against women in the labour market: a psychological perspective
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of (social) psychological evidence of the gender-based workplace and labour market discrimination. The article discusses how gender stereotypes produce gendered employee perceptions, workplace expectations and standards of evaluations. It explains which psychological mechanisms are crucial in the maintenance of discrimination in the labour market and summarizes research findings on future development of gender stereotypes. The article mainly refers to the obstacles that women face in accessing management positions, since this issue received the most attention in psychological literature. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of discrimination presented in this review are not limited to the upper layer of the labour market.
Keywords: gender stereotypes, performance evaluation, discrimination justification, leadership positions
3. Forensic psychologist
Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje
Abstract: The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.
Keywords: expert testimony, forensic psychology, criminal responsibility, eyewitness testimony
4. Children's developmental characteristics in the forensic interview
Abstract: Children can be credible witnesses in court procedures given an adequately conducted forensic interview with them. This paper presents the most important features of a child's development (the cognitive and socioemotional development and the development of language and communication) and from these features derives the specific guidelines for forensic interviews of children. Due to the frequent belief that children can be led to false witnessing and that they do not differentiate between reality and fantasy the topics of lying and suggestibility are also discussed. At the end some practical suggestions are given with recommendations for trainings of all professionals working with children that are potential witnesses.
Keywords: forensic evaluation, interview, children, witnesses, memory, suggestibility
5. The bond between a mother and her unborn child
Lucija Pavše, Nataša Tul Mandić & Vislava Globevnik Velikonja
Abstract: The bond between a mother and a child starts to develop before birth, increases with the gestational age of the child and is related to the quality of postpartum mother–infant interaction. Even though the expression maternal-fetal or prenatal attachment is commonly used to describe the parent's emotions, behaviors and perceptions that are related to the fetus, its use seems to be unsuitable. Considering Bowlby's and Ainsworth's theory of attachment, the relationship between mother and her unborn child is guided by the caregiving system. The purpose of this article is to lay out the dilemmas about the terminology, to present different definitions, measurements and variables, related to the relationship between the mother and her fetus. This relationship is a predictor of various maternal and child outcomes postnatally, which is why the goals of future investigation should be directed towards greater clarity in conceptualization, definition and measurement of the concept, and in exploration of the risks and mediating factors.
Keywords: prenatal attachment, pregnancy, mothers, caregiving system
6. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents
Abstract: Anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. If it is not treated, the symptoms aggravate over time and continue into adulthood. Early treatment is important, because an untreated anxiety disorder often results in lower academic efficiency, school abandonment and social isolation. Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective method of treatment, and the main principles thereof are presented in this article.
Keywords: anxiety disordes, cognitive-behavioral therapy, children, adolescents
7. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for children and adolescents with tic disorders
Abstract: The article provides an overview of tic disorders and empirically supported cognitive-behavioural techniques for treating tics and helping children and adolescents to learn effective coping skills to manage the adverse psychosocial consequences the ticks may produce. The article first defines and describes tics and tic disorders, it presents the epidemiological data, the course of the disorder, its comorbid conditions and the psychosocial consequences of tics, assessment methods and indications for treatment. The second part of the article focuses on the description of cognitive-behavioural treatment methods compliant with the clinical guidelines for the treatment of tic disorders. Psychoeducation and two of the most studied and empirically supported behavioural techniques – habit reversal training and exposure with response prevention – targeting tics directly, are described in more detail. The results of empirical research corroborating the effectiveness of the behavioural treatments of tics are provided. Other cognitive-behavioural techniques aimed at managing adverse psychosocial consequences and co-occurring problems are also presented. Finally, the requirements for effective cognitive-behavioural therapy for children and adolescents with tics are discussed together with ideas for the dissemination of knowledge of specific therapeutic methods among cognitive-behavioural therapists in Slovenia.
Keywords: tic disorders, habit reversal training, exposure with response prevention, cognitive-behavioural therapy
8. A systematic literature review on ambivalent sexism
Abstract: Manifestations of sexism are under the constant influence of social changes and changes in gender relations. This paper presents modern forms of sexism, with an emphasis on the ambivalent sexism theory (Glick and Fiske, 1996). Ambivalent sexism theory addresses sexism not only on societal but also on interpersonal and personal level. In addition, this article provides a comprehensive review of the empirical findings in the field of benevolent and hostile sexism and their effect on close relations, sexual violence, beauty ideals and practices, women’s self-esteem, and their career decisions and aspirations. Finally, I place ambivalent sexism theory into the broader societal and psychological context and discuss the possibilities of surmounting current sexist ideologies and practices.
Keywords: ambivalent sexism, benevolent sexism, hostile sexism, gender relations, psychological empowerment
9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy of depressive disorder in children and adolescents
Simona Sanda & Tinkara Smeh
Abstract: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has emerged as a recognized therapeutic method for treating depression in children and adolescents. This article examines the use of CBT for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents. It provides some basic theoretical concepts along with the description of the symptoms of depression in different developmental stages, the description of the therapeutic plan and goals, the description of the key and effective CBT techniques, which are used with children and adolescents with depression. The issue of evaluating suicidality is also presented. In view of the fact that nowadays we know much more about depressive disorder in children and adolescents than we did in the past, and that we are aware of the prevalence of this disorder, it is important to be acquainted with some theoretical and practical guidelines regarding CBT that can provide us with opportunities for our own professional experience and therapeutic success.
Keywords: child, adolescent, depressive disorder, cognitive-behavioral therapy
10. Brain development, growth, and maturation
Abstract: Longitudinal studies of healthy children enable us to explore and follow development, growth, and maturation of brain. Of high value are longitudinal psychological studies combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which can be advanced to brain morphometric and volumetric studies. In the article we present key findings related to brain development and provide the insight into some aspects of child development. We focus on developmental key periods including the prenatal period. We describe the processes which influence the brain structure. Changes in white matter, regionally specific trajectories of grey matter and some subcortical structures are presented. We describe characteristics of brain functioning during development and maturation. The article gives the insight into some pivotal neuroanatomical processes which influence child behaviour.
Keywords: brain, development, children, adolescents, critical period, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
11. Cognitive-behavioural therapy of deliberate self-harm in adolescence
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present cognitive-behavioural strategies for dealing with adolescents with deliberate self-harm. The presented interventions can be useful for anyone who is faced with that kind of problem in the clinical setting. Deliberate self-harm is defined as self-injury and self-poisoning. It usually occurs between the ages of 11 and 15 years. During adolescence, the prevalence of this type of behaviour is between 12 and 23%. The frequency of such behaviour is even greater among the clinical population. The most powerful risk factor for deliberate self-harm is the presence of mental disorder. Adolescents often report of chronic feelings of emptiness, alienation and isolation, of hopelessness, helplessness, of being unloved, of low self-esteem and a low tolerance for stress. The increased risk of deliberate self-harm is mainly related to emotional dysregulation and poor problem solving skills. If adolescents with deliberate self-harm do not seek help, self-inflicted behaviour may increase in its severity. It also represents a strong predictor of suicide; therefore, therapeutic intervention is of utmost importance. When dealing with deliberate self-harm, cognitive-behavioural therapy has proven to be one of the effective methods of treatment. Within therapy, the emphasis is on emotion regulation, dealing with dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs, reinforcing behavioural skills (such as problem solving skills) and improving interpersonal relationships. Moreover, much attention is paid to a mindful attitude towards oneself and one’s own past. Research shows that after completed treatment, adolescents reported less frequent self-harm behaviour and suicidal thoughts. At the same time, symptoms of depression and anxiety were reduced and adolescents reported of more positive self-image, better emotion regulation and better problem solving skills.
Keywords: deliberate self-harm, adolescence, cognitive-behavioural therapy, emotion regulation, problem solving
12. Cognitive-behavioural therapy in children and adolescents with obesity
Abstract: Obesity and overweight in children and adolescents are associated with numerous health conditions, poorer quality of life, emotional and behavioural problems, and, moreover, with poorer peer relationships. In addition to an individual’s genetic predispositions and their personal characteristics, the broader social environment, a child’s family and the parents’ parenting style play an important role in the development of obesity. Therefore, many therapeutic approaches to treating obesity in children target the whole family and almost always require a collaboration of a paediatrician and nutritionist. The article discusses the main principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy in children with obesity and the most commonly used techniques. The described techniques should be integrated in individual or group cognitive-behavioral therapy of an obese or overweight child and his or her family. Some of them can be used separately as a significant contribution to conservative approaches to treating childhood obesity. With young children, the focus should be placed mainly on behavioural techniques and work with parents, while many cognitive techniques designed for adult population can be applied in therapy with adolescents.
Keywords: obesity, emotional problems, children, parents, cognitive-behavioral therapy
13. The STEPPS Group Treatment Program as an alternative in helping people with borderline personality disorder
Jerica Radež & Meta Shawe-Taylor
Abstract: Borderline personality disorder is a complex mental disorder which has severe impact on the quality of an individual's life. Although it is the most common type of personality disorder in the population of people with mental disorders, it has so far proven to be rather resistant to pharmacological treatments. This may suggest that effective psychotherapeutic methods need to be developed to help people with this diagnosis. There have been several attempts to develop successful therapeutic interventions for borderline personality disorder. Most of them were developed either from cognitive-behavioural or from psychoanalytic paradigm. More recent studies have focused on developing a more holistic approach. One such approach is the STEPPS program. This programme combines elements from cognitive-behavioural and systemic approaches. STEPPS is a 20-week, manually based group treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. In comparison with other established approaches, the STEPPS program does not interfere with patient's other ongoing treatments. In this article we present the basics of the STEPPS program. We also provide a review of studies, investigating the effectiveness of the program. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of the program and suggest some topics for further research.
Keywords: borderline personality disorder, STEPPS, cognitive-behavioural therapy, systemic psychotherapy, psychotherapy effectiveness
14. Order information coding in working memory: Review of behavioural studies and cognitive mechanisms
Barbara Dolenc & Grega Repovš
Abstract: Executive processes, such as coding for sequential order, are of extreme importance for higher-order cognitive tasks. One of the significant questions is, how order information is coded in working memory and what cognitive mechanisms and processes mediate it. The aim of this review paper is to summarize results of studies that explore whether order and item memory are two separable processes. Furthermore, we reviewed evidence for each of the proposed cognitive mechanism that might mediate order processing. Previous behavioural and neuroimaging data suggest different representation and processing of item and order information in working memory. Both information are maintained and recalled separately and this separation seems to hold for recognition as well as for recall. To explain the result of studies of order coding, numerous cognitive mechanisms were proposed. We focused on four different mechanisms by which order information might be coded and retrieved, namely inter-item associations, direct coding, hierarchical coding and magnitude coding. Each of the mechanisms can explain some of the aspect of order information coding, however none of them is able to explain all of the empirical findings. Due to its complex nature it is not surprising that a single mechanism has difficulties accounting for all the behavioral data and order memory may be more accurately characterized as the result of a set of mechanisms rather than a single one. Moreover, the findings beget a question of whether different types of memory for order information might exist.
Keywords: working memory, serial order coding, cognitive mechanisms
15. Time for a reform of the Zois scholarships
Abstract: The paper presents a history of development of scholarships for young talents in Slovenia. Through recent years the eligibility criteria to obtain the scholarship has changed as policy and certain characteristics have been reformed. The paper argues about stricter criteria that were implemented in recently reformed Scholarship policy act. The discussion includes a proposal for necessary improvements within the system of Zois scholarships. The described changes would assign the Zois scholarship a greater role in promoting the students’ career development during and after their educational process.
Keywords: scholarships for talented, Zois scholarship, scholarship act, eligibility criteria, promoting the development of talent