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Horizons of Psychology :: Psihološka obzorja

Scientific and Professional Psychological Journal of the Slovenian Psychologists' Association

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15 most viewed scientific articles« Back

1. The role of emojis and emoticons in social engineering

Damjan Fujs, Simon L. R. Vrhovec & Anže Mihelič

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 1407  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: August 13, 2020

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to place the use of emojis and emoticons in communication, e.g., on social networks and with SMSs, to the field of social engineering. With a systematic literature survey in academic databases Web of Science and Scopus, and opportunistic search, 40 scientific papers about emojis and emoticons in social engineering were identified. The use of emojis and emoticons in communication is a form of direct communication as the sender directly influences the recipient. Emojis and emoticons are a universal tool that is understood by all communication technology users regardless of their demographics. Most of the analyzed studies employ a quantitative approach and span different research areas, such as marketing, psychology, sociology, etc. This paper represents one of the first systematic literature reviews that deal with emojis and emoticons in the context of social engineering. The findings of this paper may serve as a basis for further, especially qualitative research.

Keywords: communication, emojis, social engineering, phishing, persuasion

2. Narcissism and defense mechanisms in women

Sabina Bele

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 1388  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: June 8, 2014

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine how the level of covert and overt narcissism is connected to the frequency of the use of defense mechanisms such as denial, repression, regression, projection, compensation, projection, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, dissociation, and somatoform dissociation. We can distinguish healthy narcissism, an appropriate self-evaluation, from pathological narcissism, unrealistic self-evalutaion hiding sense of one's own unworthiness with self-idealization and grandiose thinking. When combined with low/no empathy and exploiting of others, one is diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. In this research we focused on narcissism as a personality trait, keeping in mind that we can differentiate between more covert or overt form of narcissism. We also focused on defense mechanisms protecting an individual from stimuli that are either endangering self-esteem or produce anxiety. Although their use is often unconscious, recent findings support the thesis that an individual can observe and report them. Our sample comprised 203 women. We used Narcissistic Personality Inventory, The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, The Life Style Index, The Dissociative Experience Scale, and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. Results indicated that women with higher levels of covert narcissism as a personality trait use defense mechanisms, especially regression on earlier developmental stage, compensation deficits on other areas, projection unwanted or unacceptable aspects, reaction formation, and dissociation (absorption, depersonalization and derealization) more often than women with higher levels of overt narcissism. The later use more compensation as a way of dealing with loss, intellectualization as a rational response instead of emotional one, and regression.

Keywords: narcissism, defense mechanisms, personality traits, women

3. Predictors of relationship satisfaction for men and women

Gaja Zager Kocjan & Andreja Avsec

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 1260  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: June 12, 2014

Abstract: The present study was designed to examine the differences between genders in the perception of romantic relationship as well as in aspects of the relationship that are important for their relationship satisfaction. However, previous studies rarely report significant differences between genders in various predictors of the relationship satisfaction. In our study, similar conclusions were obtained. Relationship satisfaction was predicted with attachment, self-esteem, and partner's social support. The study included 200 participants (63.5% of women) who completed the following questionnaires: Experience in Close Relationships – Revised Short ECR-RS, Quality of Relationship Inventory QRI, Relationship Satisfaction Scale RSS, and a single-item self-esteem measure. For both genders, significant positive predictor of their relationship satisfaction was self-esteem, while avoidance, anxiety, and conflict in the relationship were significant negative predictors. There were no significant differences between genders. These findings are consistent with the findings of previous studies, which rarely report significant gender differences in the various predictors.

Keywords: relationship satisfaction, gender differences, social support, attachment, self-esteem

4. Stres and burnout related to work with special education needs students in elementary school teachers

Katja Košir, Marta Licardo, Sara Tement & Katarina Habe

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 1176  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: November 16, 2014

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to examine the predictive value of elementary school teachers' workplace characteristics on work stress and burnout. Workplace characteristics were defined as job demands and resources, which were further divided into general and specific, related to work with special education needs students. We examined whether variables related to work with special education needs students explained incremental variance in stress and burnout above and beyond general workplace characteristics. Elementary school teachers from all twelve regions of Slovenia (N ranges from 439 to 886) took part in the study. The results have shown that workplace characteristics independently predict a significant amount of variance in stress, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization among teachers. General job demands and specific demands related to special education needs students are the highest and most stable predictors of all three studied criteria. Based on our findings, we suggest several measures which can help to alleviate stress and foster efficient coping strategies.

Keywords: teachers, elementary schools, stress, coping behavior, burnout, special education students

5. Factors of academic procrastination: The role of perfectionism, anxiety and depression

Eva Kranjec, Katja Košir & Luka Komidar

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 1074  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: June 28, 2016

Abstract: This study investigated dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression as factors of academic procrastination. Our main research interest was to examine the role of specific dimensions of perfectionism as moderators in the relationship between anxiety and depression and academic procrastination. Four scales were administered on the sample of 403 students: perfectionism scale FMPS, academic procrastination scale APS-SI, depression scale CESD and anxiety scale STAI-X2. The results showed significant positive relationships between maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, depression, and academic procrastination. In addition, results showed significant negative associations between adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and academic procrastination. Certain dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression proved to be significant predictors of academic procrastination. The dimensions of perfectionism and academic procrastination were also significantly related to anxiety and depression, which both predicted academic procrastination. The relationship between anxiety levels and academic procrastination was moderated by personal standards (as adaptive dimension of perfectionism), while the relationship between depression levels and academic procrastination was moderated by the maladaptive dimension of parents’ expectations.

Keywords: academic procrastination, perfectionism, anxiety, depression, students

6. Personality of owners and their dogs

Nuša Klinar & Andreja Avsec

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 789  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: February 1, 2014

Abstract: The aim of our study was to find association between the personality of owners and the personality of their dogs, assessed by their owners. Furthermore, we were interested in finding differences between dogs of different breeds. The sample included 661 owners (556 women and 105 men) and an equal number of their dogs (332 females and 329 males). The participants filled in the Big Five Inventory and slightly adopted the Big Five Inventory for dogs. The results indicated statistically significant correlations between almost all owner's personality dimensions and personality dimensions of their dogs. Besides the influence of owners and their personalities on the dog's personality, a possible cause of these associations could be their misevaluation as they want their dogs to have some equal characteristics as they have. Analysis of the data also revealed significant differences in dimensions between breeds in three of four dogs' personalities. Results were partly in accordance with hypothesized differences which were based upon official descriptions of temperament of specific breeds. Despite the fact that the research confirms that owners can judge dog's personality with satisfactory levels of accuracy, it is necessary to account all limitations of measuring dogs' personality in interpreting the results.

Keywords: personality traits, dogs, species differences

7. Do I know as much as I think I do? The Dunning-Kruger effect, overclaiming, and the illusion of knowledge

Nejc Plohl & Bojan Musil

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 665  |  flagWritten in English.  |  Published: April 23, 2018

Abstract: Realistic perception of our own knowledge is important in various areas of everyday life, yet previous studies reveal that our self-perception is full of shortcomings. The present study focused on general overestimation of knowledge and differences between experts and the less-skilled (The Dunning-Kruger effect), self-perceived knowledge of non-existing concepts (overclaiming), and the illusion of knowledge. These phenomena were tested with an instrument which measured the actual knowledge of different domains (grammar, literature, and nanotechnology), as well as self-assessed knowledge. Results showed that, on average, participants overestimated their absolute performance, but not their performance relative to others. Furthermore, the bottom quartile overestimated their absolute and their relative performance most, while the top quartile perceived their absolute performance most accurately and substantially underestimated their relative performance. Results related to overclaiming showed that 56% of respondents claimed knowledge of at least one non-existent book and that the extent of overclaiming was substantially correlated with self-perceived expertise. Lastly, results showed that an increased quantity of information about nanotechnology led to a false certainty in answering questions from this area.

Keywords: overestimating knowledge, Dunning-Kruger effect, overclaiming, illusion of knowledge

8. Emotional skills and competence questionnaire (ESCQ) as a self-report measure of emotional intelligence

Vladimir Takšić, Tamara Mohorić & Mirjana Duran

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 653  |  flagWritten in English.

Abstract: Studies of emotional intelligence (EI) initially appeared in academic journals in the early 1990s. The majority of studies on emotional intelligence have relied on self-ratings. In spite of the critics of self-report scales, there are a large number of self-report measures of EI present in recent literature. The main aim of this paper is to present the constructing procedure, together with the basic psychometric properties of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ) as a self-report measure of EI. Originally, this measure was developed in Croatian settings, using the theoretical framework from the Mayer-Salovey emotional intelligence model. The ESCQ instrument has been translated into several languages. The results have showed that ESCQ has three subscales with decent reliability. They share some amount of common variance with similar well-established constructs such as alexithymia, social skills, and personality traits, but they are not correlated with cognitive abilities. However, due to its sufficient reliability, a great deal of unique variance remains. This unique variance of the ESCQ scales has an incremental contribution in explaining life satisfaction and empathy (as the crucial criteria for EI), and has significant relations with relevant real-life criteria such as quality of leadership, health risk behaviors, and school achievement.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, self-report measures. Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ), psychometric properties, life satisfaction and empathy

9. Self-esteem stability in relation to narcissism and psychological well-being

Saša Zorjan & Katja Košir

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 578  |  flagWritten in Slovene.

Abstract: The concept of self-esteem stability has an important role in the understanding of interpersonal and psychological functioning of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem stability, narcissism and psychological well-being. A total of 178 participants (77% female) participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 20, with the ages ranging from 18 to 26 years. The participants completed the following scales and questionnaires: Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), Psychological Well-being Scales (PWBS), Instability of Selfesteem scale (ISES) and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (RSES). The Rosenberg Self-esteem scale was used to measure both self-esteem level and self-esteem stability, which was defined as dispersion of self-esteem level in time. For the purpose of obtaining data on self-esteem stability, the participants were required complete the Rosenberg self-esteem scale for a sequence of 14 days, other measures were completed during the first day of participation in the study. The main effects for self-esteem level emerged for narcissism and psychological well-being, in both cases higher levels of self-esteem was associated to higher levels of narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability additionally explained a significant proportion of variability in narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability was negatively associated with higher levels of narcissism and positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being, above and beyond the effect of self-esteem level. When comparing two different measures of self-esteem stability, the results revealed that people with higher level of narcissism tend to overestimate their self-esteem stability. The results were consistent with our hypotheses. The importance of considering both level and stability of self-esteem, limitations of the present study and possibilities for further research are also discussed.

Keywords: self-esteem, narcissism, psychological well-being

10. Social acceptance of gifted pupils and pupils with additional professional help in elementary school

Marina Horvat & Katja Košir

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 523  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: February 8, 2014

Abstract: Studies of peer relations in school settings are typically conducted on normative samples of pupils. Less is known about subgroups of pupils with some exceptionalities who may be more vulnerable to developing peer problems in school and are subsequently at risk for later maladjustment. The purpose of present study was therefore to examine social acceptance of gifted pupils and pupils with additional professional help in 6th and 8th-grade of regular elementary school. 194 pupils (50.5% girls) from 12 classes participated in the study; 16 of them (8.3%) were pupils with additional professional help (APH), 39 gifted pupils (20.1%) and one gifted pupil with APH. A composite positive and negative nomination sociometric procedure was employed. Most of the pupils with APH were in rejected and average sociometric group. Pupils with APH received the lowest number of positive and reciprocal nominations and the highest number of negative nominations. Compared to gifted pupils they were less accepted, although no difference in acceptance was found compared to the non-APH pupils. Results showed no significant differences in acceptance of pupils with APH in regard to grade level or gender. Gifted children received the highest number of positive and reciprocal and the lowest number of negative nominations. They were more likely to be average and popular, although no differences in acceptance was found compared to non-gifted pupils. Results suggest the importance of investigating subgroups of pupils with APH in future research.

Keywords: social acceptance, gifted students, students with additional professional help, sociometric groups, sociometry

11. “I want to be more ...” Can we intentionally change our personality traits?

Gaja Zager Kocjan & Maruša Kekec

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 508  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: August 17, 2020

Abstract: In this article, we reviewed and critically evaluated the latest research in the field of personality psychology that focuses on understanding and empirically examining a person’s own effort or self-regulation as a source of personality trait change. Articles included in this literature review were found through EBSCOhost, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, using “volitional personality change” or “intentional personality change” as key words. The review of 25 scientific articles published between 2012 and 2020 has shown that most of the individuals want to change some of their personality traits, which is indeed possible in a relatively short period of time by investing deliberate effort and relying on specific goals and plans to change selected personality traits. In general, most authors understand volitional personality change as a “bottom-up” process with a main mechanism being a change in current behavior, thinking, and emotions that over time manifests in a long-term personality change. Several interventions have been developed and preliminary tested to promote volitional personality change. Although first studies in this area show some promising results, they have several limitations in common. Among those are reliance on self-reports, small size and homogeneity of samples, and short time frame to monitor stability of the observed changes. Despite the limitations, results from these studies suggest that intentionally changing one’s personality may have beneficial consequences for an individual.

Keywords: volitional personality change, lifespan personality development, big five, interventions

12. Object relations and attachment styles in adulthood

Gregor Žvelc

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 473  |  flagWritten in English.

Abstract: Attachment theory and object relations theory both describe interpersonal relationships from childhood throughout the life span. The goal of the research was to investigate the relatedness between dimensions of object relations and attachment styles in adulthood. 176 undergraduate students from University of Ljubljana filled out the Test of Object Relations (Žvelc, 1998) and Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew and Horowitz, 1991). Research results showed that there exist significant and theoretically consistent correlations between object relations and attachment styles in adulthood. The secure attachment style refers to a low expression of dependence and alienation dimensions of object relations. The preoccupied attachment style is positively correlated to the dependence dimension. The results of the research confirmed the need for differentiating avoidant attachment styles into two distinctive types. As was to be expected, the fearful-avoidant attachment style is positively correlated to the dependence and alienation dimensions. Although individuals with a fearful-avoidant attachment style long for closer relationships, they are afraid of them. On the other hand, individuals with a dismissive-avoidant attachment style deny their need for relationships and appear to be self-sufficient (correlations with the self-absorption and alienation dimensions). The author proposes that in order to measure adult attachment styles, it would be beneficial to also include the reciprocity – self-absorption dimension.

Keywords: attachment theory, object relations, interpersonal relationships

13. Home environment as a predictor of child's language: A mediating role of family literacy activities and symbolic play

Urška Fekonja-Peklaj, Ljubica Marjanovič-Umek & Gregor Sočan

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 471  |  flagWritten in English.  |  Published: June 4, 2015

Abstract: In our study, we explored the ways in which SES-related factors of family environment affect child's language across toddlerhood and early childhood. We proposed a mediational path model in which we presumed that family literacy activities and parental encouragement of symbolic play acted as mediating variables, mediating the effect of parental education, family possessions and parent-to-child speech on child's language. The sample included 99 families with children, aged from 1 to 6 years. The data were collected in the family home, mostly via direct observation and by using a semi-structured interview with parents. The findings suggest that high-SES parents and parents who used a more complex and supportive speech, more frequently involved their children in different literacy activities. The effect of the parent-to-child speech on child's language proved to be mediated by parental use of mental transformations during symbolic play with a child.

Keywords: family literacy, parental education, language development, parent-to-child speech, symbolic play

14. Identifying mothers with postpartum depressions and the use of Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale to support parent-infant interaction at the neonatal intensive care unit

Nastja Pucer, Jana Kodrič, Albina Gubanc & Darja Paro Panjan

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 465  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: June 12, 2014

Abstract: Birth of an ill or premature infant and early separation from the mother on behalf of admission to a neonatal intensive care unit was found to be one of the most important predictors of postpartum depression. The goals of the study were to examine the postpartum depression symptoms frequency in the group of mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Pediatric Clinic of Ljubljana, and to examine the clinical use of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) to support the mother-infant bonding and to promote parental competencies. 63 mothers of infants in NICU participated in the study about postpartum depression symptoms frequency and 26 infants and their parents participated in the assessment of the neonatal behavior (12 mothers participated in both parts of the study). The results showed that early hospitalization of the newborn increases the risk of postnatal depression in mothers. The percent of mothers who scored 10 or more points on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was higher than the incidence of postpartum depression in Slovenia. Results support the need of a postpartum depression screening tool for mothers of infants at NICU and show that the use of NBAS is a potentially useful tool to promote parent-infant interaction.

Keywords: postnatal depression, mother-infant interaction, Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), infant hospitalization

15. Validity and reliability of the Academic Motivation Scale in a sample of Slovenian students

Melita Puklek Levpušček & Anja Podlesek

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 455  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: February 2, 2017

Abstract: In this study we examined construct validity and reliability of the Academic Motivation Scale, College Version (Academic Motivation Scale, AMS-C 28, Vallerand et al., 1992) and its relationship with gender, certainty of study choice and career goals in Slovenian university students. The theoretical basis of AMS is derived from Self-Determination Theory, which identified different types of motivation on a continuum from amotivation to different types of external motivation and intrinsic (self-determined) motivation. The AMS measures multidimensional motivational construct and contains seven scales. The validation sample consisted of 324 students of various studies at the University of Ljubljana. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable fit of the original 7-factor structure on Slovenian data and measurement invariance across gender. The highest were correlations among the three factors of intrinsic motivation and among the three factors of external motivation. Current certainty of study choice was positively associated with all three factors of intrinsic motivation and identified regulation, and negatively correlated with amotivation. Extrinsic career goals had low to moderate positive correlations with factors of external motivation while intrinsic career goals correlated positively with the three factors of intrinsic motivation, identified and introjected regulation, and negatively with amotivation. Female students had higher scores on intrinsic motivation to accomplish, and identified and introjected regulation than male students. In sum, the AMS C-28 showed good construct and convergent validity and reliability in Slovenian university context.

Keywords: academic motivation, questionnaires, validation, career goals, university students