15 most viewed scientific articles« Back
1. Narcissism and defense mechanisms in women
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine how the level of covert and overt narcissism is connected to the frequency of the use of defense mechanisms such as denial, repression, regression, projection, compensation, projection, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, dissociation, and somatoform dissociation. We can distinguish healthy narcissism, an appropriate self-evaluation, from pathological narcissism, unrealistic self-evalutaion hiding sense of one's own unworthiness with self-idealization and grandiose thinking. When combined with low/no empathy and exploiting of others, one is diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. In this research we focused on narcissism as a personality trait, keeping in mind that we can differentiate between more covert or overt form of narcissism. We also focused on defense mechanisms protecting an individual from stimuli that are either endangering self-esteem or produce anxiety. Although their use is often unconscious, recent findings support the thesis that an individual can observe and report them. Our sample comprised 203 women. We used Narcissistic Personality Inventory, The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, The Life Style Index, The Dissociative Experience Scale, and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. Results indicated that women with higher levels of covert narcissism as a personality trait use defense mechanisms, especially regression on earlier developmental stage, compensation deficits on other areas, projection unwanted or unacceptable aspects, reaction formation, and dissociation (absorption, depersonalization and derealization) more often than women with higher levels of overt narcissism. The later use more compensation as a way of dealing with loss, intellectualization as a rational response instead of emotional one, and regression.
Keywords: narcissism, defense mechanisms, personality traits, women
2. Predictors of relationship satisfaction for men and women
Gaja Zager Kocjan & Andreja Avsec
Abstract: The present study was designed to examine the differences between genders in the perception of romantic relationship as well as in aspects of the relationship that are important for their relationship satisfaction. However, previous studies rarely report significant differences between genders in various predictors of the relationship satisfaction. In our study, similar conclusions were obtained. Relationship satisfaction was predicted with attachment, self-esteem, and partner's social support. The study included 200 participants (63.5% of women) who completed the following questionnaires: Experience in Close Relationships – Revised Short ECR-RS, Quality of Relationship Inventory QRI, Relationship Satisfaction Scale RSS, and a single-item self-esteem measure. For both genders, significant positive predictor of their relationship satisfaction was self-esteem, while avoidance, anxiety, and conflict in the relationship were significant negative predictors. There were no significant differences between genders. These findings are consistent with the findings of previous studies, which rarely report significant gender differences in the various predictors.
Keywords: relationship satisfaction, gender differences, social support, attachment, self-esteem
3. Stres and burnout related to work with special education needs students in elementary school teachers
Katja Košir, Marta Licardo, Sara Tement & Katarina Habe
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to examine the predictive value of elementary school teachers' workplace characteristics on work stress and burnout. Workplace characteristics were defined as job demands and resources, which were further divided into general and specific, related to work with special education needs students. We examined whether variables related to work with special education needs students explained incremental variance in stress and burnout above and beyond general workplace characteristics. Elementary school teachers from all twelve regions of Slovenia (N ranges from 439 to 886) took part in the study. The results have shown that workplace characteristics independently predict a significant amount of variance in stress, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization among teachers. General job demands and specific demands related to special education needs students are the highest and most stable predictors of all three studied criteria. Based on our findings, we suggest several measures which can help to alleviate stress and foster efficient coping strategies.
Keywords: teachers, elementary schools, stress, coping behavior, burnout, special education students
4. Personality of owners and their dogs
Nuša Klinar & Andreja Avsec
Abstract: The aim of our study was to find association between the personality of owners and the personality of their dogs, assessed by their owners. Furthermore, we were interested in finding differences between dogs of different breeds. The sample included 661 owners (556 women and 105 men) and an equal number of their dogs (332 females and 329 males). The participants filled in the Big Five Inventory and slightly adopted the Big Five Inventory for dogs. The results indicated statistically significant correlations between almost all owner's personality dimensions and personality dimensions of their dogs. Besides the influence of owners and their personalities on the dog's personality, a possible cause of these associations could be their misevaluation as they want their dogs to have some equal characteristics as they have. Analysis of the data also revealed significant differences in dimensions between breeds in three of four dogs' personalities. Results were partly in accordance with hypothesized differences which were based upon official descriptions of temperament of specific breeds. Despite the fact that the research confirms that owners can judge dog's personality with satisfactory levels of accuracy, it is necessary to account all limitations of measuring dogs' personality in interpreting the results.
Keywords: personality traits, dogs, species differences
5. Factors of academic procrastination: The role of perfectionism, anxiety and depression
Eva Kranjec, Katja Košir & Luka Komidar
Abstract: This study investigated dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression as factors of academic procrastination. Our main research interest was to examine the role of specific dimensions of perfectionism as moderators in the relationship between anxiety and depression and academic procrastination. Four scales were administered on the sample of 403 students: perfectionism scale FMPS, academic procrastination scale APS-SI, depression scale CESD and anxiety scale STAI-X2. The results showed significant positive relationships between maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, depression, and academic procrastination. In addition, results showed significant negative associations between adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and academic procrastination. Certain dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression proved to be significant predictors of academic procrastination. The dimensions of perfectionism and academic procrastination were also significantly related to anxiety and depression, which both predicted academic procrastination. The relationship between anxiety levels and academic procrastination was moderated by personal standards (as adaptive dimension of perfectionism), while the relationship between depression levels and academic procrastination was moderated by the maladaptive dimension of parents’ expectations.
Keywords: academic procrastination, perfectionism, anxiety, depression, students
6. Self-esteem stability in relation to narcissism and psychological well-being
Saša Zorjan & Katja Košir
Abstract: The concept of self-esteem stability has an important role in the understanding of interpersonal and psychological functioning of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem stability, narcissism and psychological well-being. A total of 178 participants (77% female) participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 20, with the ages ranging from 18 to 26 years. The participants completed the following scales and questionnaires: Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), Psychological Well-being Scales (PWBS), Instability of Selfesteem scale (ISES) and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (RSES). The Rosenberg Self-esteem scale was used to measure both self-esteem level and self-esteem stability, which was defined as dispersion of self-esteem level in time. For the purpose of obtaining data on self-esteem stability, the participants were required complete the Rosenberg self-esteem scale for a sequence of 14 days, other measures were completed during the first day of participation in the study. The main effects for self-esteem level emerged for narcissism and psychological well-being, in both cases higher levels of self-esteem was associated to higher levels of narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability additionally explained a significant proportion of variability in narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability was negatively associated with higher levels of narcissism and positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being, above and beyond the effect of self-esteem level. When comparing two different measures of self-esteem stability, the results revealed that people with higher level of narcissism tend to overestimate their self-esteem stability. The results were consistent with our hypotheses. The importance of considering both level and stability of self-esteem, limitations of the present study and possibilities for further research are also discussed.
Keywords: self-esteem, narcissism, psychological well-being
7. Do I know as much as I think I do? The Dunning-Kruger effect, overclaiming, and the illusion of knowledge
Nejc Plohl & Bojan Musil
Abstract: Realistic perception of our own knowledge is important in various areas of everyday life, yet previous studies reveal that our self-perception is full of shortcomings. The present study focused on general overestimation of knowledge and differences between experts and the less-skilled (The Dunning-Kruger effect), self-perceived knowledge of non-existing concepts (overclaiming), and the illusion of knowledge. These phenomena were tested with an instrument which measured the actual knowledge of different domains (grammar, literature, and nanotechnology), as well as self-assessed knowledge. Results showed that, on average, participants overestimated their absolute performance, but not their performance relative to others. Furthermore, the bottom quartile overestimated their absolute and their relative performance most, while the top quartile perceived their absolute performance most accurately and substantially underestimated their relative performance. Results related to overclaiming showed that 56% of respondents claimed knowledge of at least one non-existent book and that the extent of overclaiming was substantially correlated with self-perceived expertise. Lastly, results showed that an increased quantity of information about nanotechnology led to a false certainty in answering questions from this area.
Keywords: overestimating knowledge, Dunning-Kruger effect, overclaiming, illusion of knowledge
8. Social acceptance of gifted pupils and pupils with additional professional help in elementary school
Marina Horvat & Katja Košir
Abstract: Studies of peer relations in school settings are typically conducted on normative samples of pupils. Less is known about subgroups of pupils with some exceptionalities who may be more vulnerable to developing peer problems in school and are subsequently at risk for later maladjustment. The purpose of present study was therefore to examine social acceptance of gifted pupils and pupils with additional professional help in 6th and 8th-grade of regular elementary school. 194 pupils (50.5% girls) from 12 classes participated in the study; 16 of them (8.3%) were pupils with additional professional help (APH), 39 gifted pupils (20.1%) and one gifted pupil with APH. A composite positive and negative nomination sociometric procedure was employed. Most of the pupils with APH were in rejected and average sociometric group. Pupils with APH received the lowest number of positive and reciprocal nominations and the highest number of negative nominations. Compared to gifted pupils they were less accepted, although no difference in acceptance was found compared to the non-APH pupils. Results showed no significant differences in acceptance of pupils with APH in regard to grade level or gender. Gifted children received the highest number of positive and reciprocal and the lowest number of negative nominations. They were more likely to be average and popular, although no differences in acceptance was found compared to non-gifted pupils. Results suggest the importance of investigating subgroups of pupils with APH in future research.
Keywords: social acceptance, gifted students, students with additional professional help, sociometric groups, sociometry
9. Identifying mothers with postpartum depressions and the use of Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale to support parent-infant interaction at the neonatal intensive care unit
Nastja Pucer, Jana Kodrič, Albina Gubanc & Darja Paro Panjan
Abstract: Birth of an ill or premature infant and early separation from the mother on behalf of admission to a neonatal intensive care unit was found to be one of the most important predictors of postpartum depression. The goals of the study were to examine the postpartum depression symptoms frequency in the group of mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Pediatric Clinic of Ljubljana, and to examine the clinical use of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) to support the mother-infant bonding and to promote parental competencies. 63 mothers of infants in NICU participated in the study about postpartum depression symptoms frequency and 26 infants and their parents participated in the assessment of the neonatal behavior (12 mothers participated in both parts of the study). The results showed that early hospitalization of the newborn increases the risk of postnatal depression in mothers. The percent of mothers who scored 10 or more points on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was higher than the incidence of postpartum depression in Slovenia. Results support the need of a postpartum depression screening tool for mothers of infants at NICU and show that the use of NBAS is a potentially useful tool to promote parent-infant interaction.
Keywords: postnatal depression, mother-infant interaction, Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), infant hospitalization
10. Social acceptance of high school students in classroom and on Facebook
Tanja Špes & Katja Košir
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between social acceptance in classroom and social acceptance on Facebook. In this study social acceptance was operationalized as social preference and as sociometric status. First, we examined whether intensity of Facebook usage, time spent on Facebook, and social preference in classroom predict social preference on Facebook. Second, we examined the relationship between sociometric status in classroom and sociometric status on Facebook. We used Facebook intensity scale (FBI) and two versions of sociometric test (with regard to peer relations in the classroom and on Facebook). The participants were 188 high school students, 117 females (57.4%) and 71 males (34.8%), between 16 and 19 years of age. The results have shown that social preference in classroom significantly predicts social preference on Facebook and that there is a positive moderate correlation between sociometric status in classroom and sociometric status on Facebook. These results are important for implementation of preventive strategies for students, who are rejected and are victims of bullying.
Keywords: social acceptance, classrooms, Facebook, high school students, sociometric status
11. The structure of the mindfulness construct: Awareness and acceptance of experience
Abstract: Mindfulness experienced a strong upswing in the last two decades in psychology and related disciplines, but relatively little research focused on the structure of the construct. The aim of this article is to present, compare, and critically examine different types of models of the mindfulness construct. Unidimensional models conceptualize mindfulness merely as an individual’s awareness of their current experience. Bidimensional models of mindfulness include awareness of current experience and acceptance of that experience. In multidimensional models, mindfulness is conceptualized as a construct composed of three or more factors. The problem of unidimensional models is that they do not define the quality of awareness, as sometimes individual’s self-awareness may be counterproductive (e.g., excessively self-critical). Multidimensional models are problematic due to considerable overlaps of factors and the inclusion of phenomena that may not be integral parts of the mindfulness construct. The most appropriate may thus be bidimensional models of mindfulness which seem to be sufficiently concise and at the same time capture the content of the construct on a sufficient level of complexity.
Keywords: mindfulness, awareness, acceptance, non-judgment, factor structure
12. Validity and reliability of the Academic Motivation Scale in a sample of Slovenian students
Melita Puklek Levpušček & Anja Podlesek
Abstract: In this study we examined construct validity and reliability of the Academic Motivation Scale, College Version (Academic Motivation Scale, AMS-C 28, Vallerand et al., 1992) and its relationship with gender, certainty of study choice and career goals in Slovenian university students. The theoretical basis of AMS is derived from Self-Determination Theory, which identified different types of motivation on a continuum from amotivation to different types of external motivation and intrinsic (self-determined) motivation. The AMS measures multidimensional motivational construct and contains seven scales. The validation sample consisted of 324 students of various studies at the University of Ljubljana. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable fit of the original 7-factor structure on Slovenian data and measurement invariance across gender. The highest were correlations among the three factors of intrinsic motivation and among the three factors of external motivation. Current certainty of study choice was positively associated with all three factors of intrinsic motivation and identified regulation, and negatively correlated with amotivation. Extrinsic career goals had low to moderate positive correlations with factors of external motivation while intrinsic career goals correlated positively with the three factors of intrinsic motivation, identified and introjected regulation, and negatively with amotivation. Female students had higher scores on intrinsic motivation to accomplish, and identified and introjected regulation than male students. In sum, the AMS C-28 showed good construct and convergent validity and reliability in Slovenian university context.
Keywords: academic motivation, questionnaires, validation, career goals, university students
13. Home environment as a predictor of child's language: A mediating role of family literacy activities and symbolic play
Urška Fekonja-Peklaj, Ljubica Marjanovič-Umek & Gregor Sočan
Abstract: In our study, we explored the ways in which SES-related factors of family environment affect child's language across toddlerhood and early childhood. We proposed a mediational path model in which we presumed that family literacy activities and parental encouragement of symbolic play acted as mediating variables, mediating the effect of parental education, family possessions and parent-to-child speech on child's language. The sample included 99 families with children, aged from 1 to 6 years. The data were collected in the family home, mostly via direct observation and by using a semi-structured interview with parents. The findings suggest that high-SES parents and parents who used a more complex and supportive speech, more frequently involved their children in different literacy activities. The effect of the parent-to-child speech on child's language proved to be mediated by parental use of mental transformations during symbolic play with a child.
Keywords: family literacy, parental education, language development, parent-to-child speech, symbolic play
14. School climate in peer bullying: observers' and active participants' perceptions
Sonja Pečjak & Tina Pirc
Abstract: Peer bullying is a phenomenon present in all schools. The school as an institution has a major role in limiting peer bullying. The primary goal of the study was to determine how different groups of students perceived school climate in relation to peer bullying regarding their role in peer bullying (active participants: bullies, victims, bully-victims and non-active participants: observers). 414 students (from 18 primary and secondary schools) responded to The School Climate Bullying Survey (SCBS; Cornell, 2012), which measures the incidence of various forms of peer bullying and three dimensions of school climate (prevalence of teasing and bullying, aggressive attitudes, and willingness to seek help). The results showed that the active participants in peer bullying report a frequent presence of verbal and social bullying (54% and 40%, respectively) and a significantly lower frequency of physical and cyber bullying (14%). The largest differences between the groups of students were found in their perceptions of the prevalence of aggressive attitudes and willingness to seek help in a school context. In the perceptions of both of these dimensions we found a high degree of similarity between the groups of bullies and victim-bullies, and between the groups of victims and observers. The first two groups, when compared to the victims and observers, perceived to a greater extent that school allows aggression as a way of affirmation among peers and in school in general, and that neither teachers nor peers do not stop the bullying, which discourages the victims from seeking help from them. The results confirmed the existence of the association between students’ perceived school climate by bullying and their behavior (roles) in peer bullying.
Keywords: peer bullying, perceived school climate, bullies, victims, observers
15. Developmental changes in intellectual ability in persons with intellectual disability
Urška Žerak & Robert Masten
Abstract: The aim of the study was a retrospective, longitudinal investigation of changes in intellectual functioning in individuals with intellectual disability who were/are institutionalised. Development of individuals with intellectual disability differs from the development of individuals with typical development, as these individuals frequently demonstrate regressions and fluctuations in development. Their development depends on the type and extent of the intellectual disability, comorbid psychopathology and health conditions. The sample included 30 individuals with moderate (21) and severe (9) intellectual disability who had been assessed in three different time points with an instrument measuring intellectual ability (Valentine intelligence test for children). The group analysis showed a statistically significant improvement in the scores on measured construct between first and second point and continuity of achievements during the second and third point. Results indicate congruity with the similar-trajectory hypothesis, which predicts growth of intellectual abilities up to 20 years, then continuity and decline around age 60. Limitations and guidelines for future research are also discussed.
Keywords: intellectual disability, intelligence, development, longitudinal studies