This site uses cookies for user authentication, optional permanent login and monitoring the number of page views (Google Analytics).
Do you agree with cookies being used in accordance with our Privacy policy? You can change your decision regarding the use of cookies on the Privacy page.

I want to know more

Horizons of Psychology :: Psihološka obzorja

Scientific and Professional Psychological Journal of the Slovenian Psychologists' Association

Indexed in:
Academic OneFile

Member of DOAJ and CrossRef



My Account

Most viewed articles


« Back to Volume 26 (2017)

flag Pojdi na slovensko stran članka / Go to the article page in Slovene

A systematic literature review on ambivalent sexism

Mojca Svetek

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 181  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: March 12, 2017

pdf  |  Cited By: CrossRef (0)

Abstract: Manifestations of sexism are under the constant influence of social changes and changes in gender relations. This paper presents modern forms of sexism, with an emphasis on the ambivalent sexism theory (Glick and Fiske, 1996). Ambivalent sexism theory addresses sexism not only on societal but also on interpersonal and personal level. In addition, this article provides a comprehensive review of the empirical findings in the field of benevolent and hostile sexism and their effect on close relations, sexual violence, beauty ideals and practices, women’s self-esteem, and their career decisions and aspirations. Finally, I place ambivalent sexism theory into the broader societal and psychological context and discuss the possibilities of surmounting current sexist ideologies and practices.

Keywords: ambivalent sexism, benevolent sexism, hostile sexism, gender relations, psychological empowerment

Svetek, M. (2017). Sistematični pregled literature s področja ambivalentnega seksizma [A systematic literature review on ambivalent sexism]. Psihološka obzorja, 26, 21–32.

Reference list

Abrams, D., Masser, B., & Bohner, G. (2003). Perceptions of stranger and acquaintance rape: The role of benevolent and hostile sexism in victim blame and rape proclivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 111–125. CrossRef

Barreto, M., Ellemers, N., Piebinga, L., & Moya, M. (2010). How nice of us and how dumb of me: The effect of exposure to benevolent sexism on women's task and relational self-descriptions. Sex Roles, 62, 532–544. CrossRef

Becker, J. C., & Swim, J. K. (2012). Reducing endorsement of benevolent and modern sexist beliefs. Social Psychology, 43(3), 127–137. CrossRef

Calogero, R. M., & Jost, J. T. (2011). Self-subjugation among women: Exposure to sexist ideology, self-objectification, and the protective function of the need to avoid closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(2), 211–228. CrossRef

Campbell, B., Schellenberg, G. E., & Senn, C. Y. (1997). Evaluating measures of contemporary sexism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 89–102. CrossRef

Chen, Z., Fiske, S. T., & Lee, T. L. (2009). Ambivalent sexism and power-related gender-role ideology in marriage. Sex Roles, 60, 765–778. CrossRef

Chisango, T., Mayekiso, T., & Thomae, M. (2015). The social nature of benevolent sexism and the antisocial nature of hostile sexism: Is benevolent sexism more likely to manifest in public contexts and hostile sexism in private contexts? International Journal of Psychology, 50(5), 363–371. CrossRef

Connelly, K., & Heesacker, M. (2012). Why is benevolent sexism appealing? Associations with system justification and life satisfaction. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36(4), 432–443. CrossRef

Crosby, F., Bromley, S., & Saxe, L. (1980). Recent unobtrusive studies of Black and White discrimination and prejudice: A literature review. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 546–563. CrossRef

Dardenne, B., Dumont, M., & Bollier, T. (2007). Insidious dangers of benevolent sexism: Consequences for women's performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 764–779. CrossRef

Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (1986). The aversive form of racism. V J. F. Dovidio in S. L. Gaertmer (ur.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (str. 61–89). Orlando, FL, ZDA: Academic Press.

Dumont, M., Sarlet, M., & Dardenne, B. (2010). Be too kind to a woman, she'll feel incompetent: Benevolent sexism shifts self-construal and autobiographical memories toward incompetence. Sex Roles, 62, 545–553. CrossRef

Duran, M., Moya, M., & Megías, J. L. (2014). Benevolent sexist ideology attributed to an abusive partner decreases women's active coping responses to acts of sexual violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(8), 1380–1401. CrossRef

Duran, M., Moya, M., Megias, J. L., & Viki, T. G. (2010). Social perception of rape victims in dating and married relationships: The role of perpetrator's benevolent sexism. Sex Roles, 62, 505–519. CrossRef

Eagly, A. H., & Mladinic, A. (1989). Gender stereotypes and attitudes towarrd women and men. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15(4), 543–558. CrossRef

Eastwick, P. W., Eagly, A. H., Glick, P., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., Fiske, S. T., Blum, A. M. B. … Volpato C. (2006). Is traditional gender ideology associated with sex-typed mate preferences? A test in nine nations. Sex Roles, 54, 603–614. CrossRef

Forbes, G. B., Collinsworth, L. L., Jobe, R. L., Braun, K. D., & Wise, L. M. (2007). Sexism, hostility toward women, and endorsement of beauty ideals and practices: Are beauty ideals associated with oppressive belifs? Sex Roles, 56, 265–273. CrossRef

Forbes, G. B., Doroszewicz, K., Card, K., & Adams-Curtis, L. (2004). Association of the Thin body ideal, ambivalent sexism, and self-esteem with body acceptance and the preferred body size of college women in Poland and the United States. Sex Roles, 50, 331–345. CrossRef

Forbes, G. B., Jung, J., & Haas, K. B. (2006). Benevolent sexism and cosmetic use: A replication with three college samples and one adult sample. The Journal of Social Psychology, 146(5), 635–640. CrossRef

Franzoi, S. L. (2001). Is female body esteem shaped by benevolent sexism? Sex Roles, 44, 177–188. CrossRef

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 491–512. CrossRef

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1997). Hostile and benevolent sexism: Measuring ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(1), 119–135. CrossRef

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1999). The Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23, 519–536. CrossRef

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (2001). An ambivalent alliance: Hostile and benevolent sexism as complementary justifications for gender inequality. American Psychologist, 56(2), 109–118. CrossRef

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (2011). Ambivalent sexism revisited. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(3), 530–535. CrossRef

Glick, P., Diebold, J., Bailey-Werner, B., & Zhu, L. (1997). The two faces of Adam: Ambivalent sexism and polarized attitudes toward women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(12), 1323–1334. CrossRef

Glick, P., Fiske, S. T., Mladinic, A., Saiz, J. L., Abrams, D., Masser, B., … Lopez, W. (2000). Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: Hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 763–775. CrossRef

Glick, P., Lameiras, M., Fiske, S. T., Eckes, T., Masser, B., Volpato, C., … Wells, R. (2004). Bad but bold: Ambivalent attitudes toward men predict gender inequality in 16 nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(5), 713–728. CrossRef

Goldstein, N. J., & Mortensen, C. R. (2012) Social norms: A how-to (and how-not-to) guide. V D. T. Kenrick, N. J. Goldstein in S. L. Braver (ur.), Six degrees of social influence: Science, application, and the psychology of Robert Caldini (str. 68–78). New York, NY, ZDA: Oxford University Press.

Good, J. J., & Rudman, L. A. (2010). When female applicants meet sexist interviewers: The costs of being a target of benevolent sexism. Sex Roles, 62, 481–493. CrossRef

Hammond, M. D., & Sibley, C. G. (2011). Why are benevolent sexists happier? Sex Roles, 65, 332–343. CrossRef

Hur, M. H. (2006). Empowerment in terms of theoretical perspectives: Exploring a typology of the process and components across disciplines. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(5), 523. CrossRef

Jackman, M. R. (1994). Paternalism and conflict in gender, class and race relations. Berkeley, CA, ZDA: University of California Press.

Jost, J. T., & Banaji, M. R. (1994). The role of stereotyping in system-justification and the production of false consciousness. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33(1), 1–27. CrossRef

Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25(4), 881–919. CrossRef

Jost, J. T., & Kay, A. C. (2005). Exposure to benevolent sexism and complementary gender stereotypes: Consequences for specific and diffuse forms of system justification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(3), 498–509. CrossRef

Karakurt, G., & Cumbie, T. (2012). The relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and violence in intimate relationships. Journal of Family Violence, 27(2), 115–122. CrossRef

Katz, I. (1981). Stigma: A social psychological analysis. Hillsdale, MI, ZDA: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kilianski, S. E., & Rudman, L. A. (1998). Wanting it both ways: Do women approve of benevolent sexism? Sex Roles, 39, 333–352. CrossRef

King, E. B., Botsford, W., Hebl, M. R., Kazama, S., Dawson, J. F., & Perkins, A. (2012). Benevolent sexism at work: Gender differences in the distribution of challenging developmental experiences. Journal of Management, 38(6), 1835–1866. CrossRef

Lee, T. L., Fiske, S. T., Glick, P., & Chen, Z. (2010). Ambivalent sexism in close relationships: (Hostile) power and (benevolent) romance shape relationship ideals. Sex Roles, 62, 583–601. CrossRef

Liviatan, I., & Jost, J. T. (2011). System justification theory: Motivated social cognition in the service of the status quo. Social Cognition, 29(3), 231–237. CrossRef

Masser, B., & Abrams, D. (1999). Contemporary sexism: The relationships among hostility, benevolence, and neosexism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23, 503–517. CrossRef

McConahay, J. B. (1986). Modern racism, ambivalence, and the Modern Racism Scale. V J. F. Dovidio in S. L. Gaertmer (ur.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (str. 91–125). Orlando, FL, ZDA: Academic Press.

McConahay, J. B., & Hough, J. C. (1976). Symbolic racism. Journal of Social Issues, 32(2), 23–45. CrossRef

Montanes, P., de Lemus, S., Bohner, G., Megias, J. L., Moya, M., & Garcia-Retamero, R. (2012). Intergenerational transmission of benevolent sexism from mothers to daughters and its relation to daughters' academic performance and goals. Sex Roles, 66, 468–478. CrossRef

Moya, M., Glick, P., Expósito, F., de Lemus, S., & Hart, J. (2007). It's for your own good: Benevolent sexism and women's reactions to protectively justified restrictions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1421–1434. CrossRef

Muehlenkamp, J. J., & Saris-Baglama, R. N. (2002). Self-objectification and its psychological outcomes for college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26(4), 371–379. CrossRef

Myers, D. G. (2010). Social psychology (5. izd.). New York, NY, ZDA: McGraw-Hill.

Napier, J. L., Thorisdottir, H., & Jost, J. T. (2010). The joy of sexism? A multinational investigation of hostile and benevolent justifications for gender inequality and their relations to subjective well-being. Sex Roles, 62, 405–419. CrossRef

Rudman, L. A., & Glick, P. (2010). The social psychology of gender: How power and intimacy shape gender relations. New York, NY, ZDA: Guilford Press.

Rudman, L. A., & Heppen, J. B. (2003). Implicit romantic fantasies and women's interest in personal power: A glass slipper effect? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1357–1370. CrossRef

Russell, B. L., & Trigg, K. Y. (2004). Tolerance of sexual harassment: An examination of gender differences, ambivalent sexism, social dominance, and gender roles. Sex Roles, 50, 565–573. CrossRef

Sakalh, N. (2001). Beliefs about wife beating among Turkish college students: The effect of patriarchy, sexism, and sex differences. Sex Roles, 44, 599–610. CrossRef

Saunders, K. J., & Kashubeck‐West, S. (2006). The relations among feminist identity development, gender‐role orientation, and psychological well‐being in women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30(2), 199–211. CrossRef

Shepherd, M., Erchull, M. J., Rosner, A., Taubenberger, L., Forsyth Queen, E., & McKee, J. (2011). I'll get that for you: The relationship between benevolent sexism and body self-perceptions. Sex Roles, 64, 1–8. CrossRef

Sibley, C. G., Wilson, M. S. W., & Duckitt, J. (2007). Antecedents of men's hostile and benevolent sexism: The dual roles of social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(2), 160–172. CrossRef

Simonet, D. V., Narayan, A., & Nelson, C. A. (2015). A social-cognitive moderated mediated model of psychological safety and empowerment. The Journal of Psychology, 149(8), 818–845. CrossRef

Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1972). The Attitudes toward Women Scale: An objective instrument to measure attitudes toward the rights and roles of women in contemporary society. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 2, 66–67.

Swim, J. K., Aikin, K. J., Hall, W. S., & Hunter, B. A. (1995). Sexism and racism: Old fashioned and modern prejudices. Journal of Personalty and Social Psychology, 27, 1673–1682. CrossRef

Tougas, F., Brown, R., Beaton, A. M., & Joly, S. (1995). Neosexism: Plus ça change, plus c'est pareil. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 842–849. CrossRef

Travaglia, L. K., Overall, N. C., & Sibley, C. G. (2009). Benevolent and hostile sexism and preferences for romantic partners. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 599–604. CrossRef

Ule, M. (2009). Socialna psihologija: Analitični pristop k življenju v družbi. Ljubljana, Slovenija: Založba FDV.

Viki, T. G., & Abrams, D. (2002). But she was unfaithful: Benevolent sexism and reactions to rape victims who violate traditional gender role expectations. Sex Roles, 47, 289–293. CrossRef

Viki, G. T., Abrams, D., & Hutchison, P. (2003). The "true" romantic: Benevolent sexism and paternalistic chivalry. Sex Roles, 49, 533–537. CrossRef

Viki, G. T., Abrams, D., & Masser, B. (2004). Evaluating stranger and acquaintance rape: The role of benevolent sexism in perpetrator blame and recommended sentence length. Law and Human Behavior, 28(3), 295–303. CrossRef

« Back to Volume 26 (2017)