This site uses cookies for user authentication, optional permanent login and monitoring the number of page views (Google Analytics).
Do you agree with cookies being used in accordance with our Privacy policy? You can change your decision regarding the use of cookies on the Privacy page.

I want to know more

Horizons of Psychology :: Psihološka obzorja

Scientific and Professional Psychological Journal of the Slovenian Psychologists' Association

Indexed in:
Academic OneFile

Member of DOAJ and CrossRef



My Account

Most viewed articles


« Back to Volume 28 (2019)

flag Pojdi na slovensko stran članka / Go to the article page in Slovene

Gender and national differences in emotional intelligence and empathy: Comparison of Croatian and Portuguese samples

Jelena Pongrac, Tamara Mohorić & Petra Anić

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 27  |  flagWritten in English.  |  Published: March 13, 2019

pdf  |  Cited By: CrossRef (0)

Abstract: The study focused on the relationship of emotional and cognitive components of empathy with emotional intelligence abilities (labelling, understanding, and regulating emotions). Since both emotional intelligence and empathy have important role in a person’s socio-emotional health and well-being, we need to better understand the relations between these two related constructs. Additionally, having samples from two different countries enabled us comparison on the national level. Two samples of adults participated in the study, namely from Croatia (N = 138) and Portugal (N = 138). We found significant moderate correlations between empathy and emotional intelligence measures in both samples. Four dimensions from the Interpersonal Responsivity Index (IRI; empathic concerns, fantasy, personal distress and perspective-taking) had significant moderate correlations with each other, with similar patterns of correlations in both samples. The strongest correlations were found for the TEQ (affective component of empathy) and perspective-taking (cognitive component of empathy) and different emotional intelligence components. Participants in the Portuguese sample had higher scores on the emotional component of empathy (empathic care and the TEQ), while cognitive component (perspective-taking) was more expressed in the Croatian sample. Participants in the Portuguese sample also had higher scores on all three components of emotional intelligence than participants in the Croatian sample. Regardless of the nationality, women had higher scores on the measures of empathic care, fantasy, perspective-taking and the TEQ, while men scored higher on the measure of personal distress. Regarding emotional intelligence scales, women had higher results on the Perceive and Understand emotions scale.

Keywords: affective empathy, cognitive empathy, emotional intelligence, cross cultural studies

Pongrac, J., Mohorić, T., & Anić, P. (2019). Gender and national differences in emotional intelligence and empathy: Comparison of Croatian and Portuguese samples. Psihološka obzorja, 28, 19–27.

Reference list

Alterman, A. I., McDermott, P. A., Cacciola, J. S., & Rutherford, M. J. (2003). Latent structure of the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index in methadone maintenance patients. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 25, 257–265. CrossRef

Austin, E. J., Evans, P., Goldwater, R., & Potter, V. (2005). A preliminary study of emotional intelligence, empathy and exam performance in first year medical students. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1395–1405. CrossRef

Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, 57, 289–300. CrossRef

Bernieri, F. J. (2001). Toward a taxonomy of interpersonal sensitivity. In J. Hall & F. Bernieri (Eds.), Interpersonal sensitivity: Theory and measurement (pp. 3–20). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Shiffman, S., Lerner, N., & Salovey P. (2006). Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: A comparison of self-report and performance measures of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 780–795. CrossRef

Brdar, I., & Pokrajac-Bulian, A. (1993). Predstavlja li empatija dio socijalne kompetencije [Is empathy part of social competence]? Godišnjak Zavoda za psihologiju [Yearbook of Association of Psychology], 2, 23–29.

Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D., & Salovey P. (2002). Relation of an ability measure of emotional intelligence to personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 306–320. CrossRef

Cassels, T. G., Chan, S., Chung, W. C., & Birch, S. A. J. (2010). The role of culture in affective empathy: Cultural and bicultural differences. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 10, 309–326. CrossRef

Ciarrochi, J. V., Caputi, P., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). The distinctiveness and utility of a measure of trait emotional awareness. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1477–1490. CrossRef

Ciarrochi, J. V., Chan, A. Y., & Caputi, P. (2000). A critical evaluation of the emotional intelligence concept. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 539–561. CrossRef

Cliffordson, C. (2001). Parents' judgments and students' self-judgments of empathy: The structure of empathy and agreement of judgments based on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 17, 36–47. CrossRef

Costa, A., Faria, L., & Takšić, V. (2016). Cross-cultural invariance of emotional skills and competence questionnaire between Portugal and Croatia. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 19, e31. CrossRef

Davis, M. H. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 3–18.

Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113–126. CrossRef

Faria, L., & Lima Santos, N. (2005). Adaptation of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ) to the Portuguese context. Paper presented at the Symposium "Cross-cultural validation of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ)", at the 9th European Congress of Psychology, Granada, Spain, July 3-8.

Faria, L., Lima Santos, N., Takšić, V., Räty, H., Molander, B., Holmström, S., & Toyota, H. (2006). Cross-cultural validation of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ). Psicologia, 20, 95–127.

Fernández-Berrocal, P., Cabello, R., Castillo, R., & Extremera, N. (2012). Gender differences in emotional intelligence: The mediating effect of age. Behavioral Psychology / Psicología Conductual, 20, 77–89.

Gallagher, E. N., & Vella-Brodrick, D. A. (2008). Social support and emotional intelligence as predictors of subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1551–1561. CrossRef

Hess, U., Senecal, S., Kirouac. G., Herrera, P., Philippot, P., & Kleck, R. E. (2000). Emotional expressivity in men and women: Stereotypes and self-perceptions. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 609–642. CrossRef

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviours, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications.

Ioannidou, F., & Konstantikaki, V. (2008). Empathy and emotional intelligence: What is it really about? International Journal of Caring Sciences, 1, 118–123.

Keen, S. (2007). Empathy and the novel. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press. CrossRef

Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY; USA: Guilford.

Kokkinos, C. M., & Kipritsi, E. (2012). The relationship between bullying, victimization, trait emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and empathy among preadolescents. Social Psychology of Education, 15, 41–58. CrossRef

Limpo, T., Alves, R. A., & Catro, S. L. (2010). Medir a empatia: Adaptacao Portuguesa do Indice de Reactividade Interpessoal [Measuring empathy: Portuguese adaptation of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index]. Laboratorio de Psihologia, 8, 171–184.

Lopez-Zafra, E., & Gartzia, L. (2014). Perceptions of gender differences in self-report measures of emotional intelligence. Sex Roles, 70, 479–495. CrossRef

Martins, A., Ramalho, N., & Morin, E. (2010). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 554–564. CrossRef

Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. S. (2012). Culture and emotion: The integration of biological and cultural contributions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43, 91–118. CrossRef

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27, 267–298. CrossRef

Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507–536. CrossRef

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–31). New York, NY, USA: Basic Books.

Muthen, B., & Kaplan, D. (1985). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non-normal Likert variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38, 171–189. CrossRef

Parker, J. D. A., Saklofske, D. H., Shaughnessy, P. A., Huang, S. H. S., Wood, L. M., & Eastabrook, J. M. (2005). Generalizability of the emotional intelligence construct: A cross-cultural study of North American aboriginal youth. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 215–227. CrossRef

Parker, J. D. A., Summerfeldt, L. J., Hogan, M. J., & Majeski, S. A. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic success: Examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 163–172. CrossRef

Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). Gender differences in measured and self-estimated trait emotional intelligence. Sex Roles, 42(5–6), 449–461. CrossRef

Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1–36. CrossRef

Rey, L., Extremera, N., & Pena, M. (2011). Perceived emotional intelligence, self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents. Psychosocial Interventions, 20, 227–234. CrossRef

Runyon, R. P., Coleman, K. A., & Pittenger, D. J. (2000). Fundamentals of behavioral statistics. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Bhullar, N., & Rooke, S. E. (2007). A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 921–933. CrossRef

Shao, B., Doucet, L., & Caruso, D. R. (2015). Universality versus cultural specificity of three emotion domains: Some evidence based on the cascading model of emotional intelligence. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46, 229–251. CrossRef

Song, L. J., Huang, G., Peng, K. Z., Law, K. S., Wong, C., & Chen, Z. (2010). The differential effects of general mental ability and emotional intelligence on academic performance and social interactions. Intelligence, 38, 137–143. CrossRef

Spreng, N. R., McKinnon, M. C., Mar, R. A., & Levine, B. (2009). The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire: Scale development and initial validation of a factor-analytic solution to multiple empathy measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 62–71. CrossRef

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA, USA: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.

Takšić, V. (1998.) Validacija konstrukta emocionalne inteligencije [Validation of the Emotional Intelligence Construct] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Zagreb, Croatia.

Takšić, V. (2002). The importance of emotional intelligence (competence) in positive psychology. Paper presented at the First International Positive Psychology Summit, Washington, DC, USA, October 4-6.

Takšić, V. (2013). Cross-cultural issues in emotional intelligence. Invited symposium at 13th European Congress of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden, July 9-12.

Takšić, V., Mohorić, T., Bradić, S., Faria, L., Santos, N. L., Pessoa, F., … Jiang, Q. (2009). Cross-cultural comparison of emotional skills and competencies questionnaire (ESCQ). Paper presented at the II. International Emotional Intelligence Congress, Santander, Spain, September 16-18.

Takšić, V., Mohorić, T., & Munjas, R. (2006). Emocionalna inteligencija: Teorija, operacionalizacija, primjena i povezanost s pozitivnom psihologijom [Emotional intelligence: Theory, operacionalization, application and association with positive psychology]. Društvena istraživanja, 15, 729–752.

van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Matsumoto, D. (2011). Introduction to the methodological issues associated with cross-cultural research. In F. J. R. van de Vijver & D. Matsumoto (Eds), Cross-cultural research methods in psychology (pp. 1–14). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

« Back to Volume 28 (2019)