This site uses cookies for user authentication, optional permanent login and monitoring the number of page views (Google Analytics).
Do you agree with cookies being used in accordance with our Privacy policy? You can change your decision regarding the use of cookies on the Privacy page.

I want to know more

Horizons of Psychology :: Psihološka obzorja

Scientific and Professional Psychological Journal of the Slovenian Psychologists' Association

Indexed in:
Academic OneFile

Member of DOAJ and CrossRef



My Account

Most viewed articles


« Back to Volume 29 (2020)

flag Pojdi na slovensko stran članka / Go to the article page in Slovene

Implementation of formative assessment in higher education

Barbara Šteh & Marjeta Šarić

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 17  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: May 8, 2020

pdf  |  Cited By: CrossRef (0)

Abstract: Formative assessment has been generally acknowledged at all levels of education, including higher education. However, the empirical data on its use and effectiveness in higher education is scarce and inconclusive. The issue is an ambiguous understanding of formative assessment. Therefore, the main aim of this article is to contribute to the clarification of this concept by analysing its key characteristics. Formative assessment has to be embedded in the entire teaching and learning process. In this paper we focus on effectiveness of formative assessment and factors that influence its implementation in higher education. Teachers in higher education have an essential role in creating learning environments that enable quality formative assessment. This includes forming suitable tasks and challenges for students, giving them relevant feedback, as well as receiving, understanding and responding to the feedback from students themselves. Effective formative assessment empowers students to ask reflexive questions, evaluate the quality of their knowledge, and regulate their learning. Finally, we draw attention to the entire context as an important condition for implementation of formative assessment in higher education. The context includes the culture of an institution, the demands of an educational programme, general assessment methods, and especially the qualifications of higher education teachers for accomplishing quality assessment. We proposed several key guidelines for establishing the conditions under which assessment can support students’ learning.

Keywords: higher education, formative assessment, feedback, self-regulated learning

Šteh, B., & Šarić, M. (2020). Uveljavljanje formativnega ocenjevanja v visokošolskem izobraževanju [Implementation of formative assessment in higher education]. Psihološka obzorja, 29, 79–86.

Reference list

Ajjawi, R., & Boud, D. (2018). Examining the nature and effects of feedback dialogue. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(7), 1106–1119. CrossRef

Bečaj, J. (2000). Je bolje ocenjevati ali preverjati? Socialnopsihološke dimenzije ocenjevanja in preverjanja [Is it better to assess or examine? Socio-psychological dimensions of assessment and examination]. Vzgoja in izobraževanje, 31(2–3), 10–19.

Bečaj, J. (2009). Cilji so vedno v oblakih, pot pa je mogoča le v resničnosti [The goals are always in the clouds, but the path is only possible in reality]. Vzgoja in izobraževanje, 40(jubilejna št.), 27–40.

Bennett, R. E. (2011). Formative assessment: A critical review. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 18(1), 5–25. CrossRef

Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2007). Teaching for Quality Learning at University (3. izd.). Maidenhead, Združeno kraljestvo: Open University Press.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation & Accountability, 21(1), 5–31. CrossRef

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2012). Assessment for learning in the classroom. V J. Gardner (ur.), Assessment and Learning (2. izd., str. 11–32). London, Združeno kraljestvo: Sage. CrossRef

Bloxham, S., & Boyd, P. (2007). Developing effective assessment in higher education. Maidenhead, Združeno kraljestvo: Open University Press.

Boud, D. (1995). Assessment and learning: Contradictory or complementary? V P. Knight (ur.), Assessment for learning in higher education (str. 35–48). London, Združeno kraljestvo: Kogan Page.

Boud, D. (2000). Sustainable assessment: Rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in Continuing Education, 22(2), 151–167. CrossRef

Boud, D., & Soler, R. (2016). Sustainable assessment revisited. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 41(3), 400–413. CrossRef

Brown, G., Bull, J., & Pendlebury, M. (1997). Assessing student learning in higher education. London, Združeno kraljestvo: Routledge.

Brown, S. (2004-05). Assessment for learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, 1(1), 81–89.

Carless, D. (2015). Exploring learning-oriented assessment processes. Higher Education, 69, 963–976. CrossRef

Carless, D., & Boud, D. (2018). The development of student feedback literacy: Enabling uptake of feedback. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(8), 1315–1325. CrossRef

Duncan, N. (2007). 'Feed‐forward': Improving students' use of tutors' comments. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 32(3), 271–283. CrossRef

Earl, L. (2003). Assessment as learning: Using classroom assessment to maxime student learning. Thousand Oaks, CA, ZDA: Corwin Press.

Gibbs, G., & Simpson, C. (2004-05). Conditions under which assessment supports students' learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, 1(1), 3–31.

Hattie, J. A. C. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achivement. New York, NY, ZDA: Routledge. CrossRef

Holcar Brunauer, A, Bizjak, C., Borstner, M., Cotič Pajntar, J., Eržen, V., Kerin, M., Komljanc, N., Kregar, S., Margan, U., Novak, L., Rutar Ilc, Z., Zajc S., & Zore, N. (2016). Formativno spremljanje v podporo učenju: Priročnik za učitelje in strokovne delavce [Formative assessment to support learning: A manual for teachers and professional workers]. Ljubljana, Slovenija: Zavod Republike Slovenije za šolstvo.

Marentič Požarnik, B. (1988). Dejavniki in metode uspešnega učenja [Factors and methods of successful learning]. Ljubljana, Slovenija: Filozofska fakulteta Univereze Edvarda Kardelja v Ljubljani, Oddelek za pedagogiko.

Marentič Požarnik, B. (2004). Kako bolje uravnavati mogočen vpliv preverjanja in ocenjevanja [How to Better Regulate the Powerful Influence of Examination and Assessment]. Sodobna pedagogika, 55/121(1), 8–22.

Marentič Požarnik, B., & Peklaj, C. (2002). Preverjanje in ocenjevanje za uspešnejši študij [Assessment for successful study process]. Ljubljana, Slovenija: Center za pedagoško izobraževanje Filozofske fakultete.

Nicol, D. (2010). From monologue to dialogue: Improving written feedback processes in mass higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(5), 501–517. CrossRef

Nicol, D. J., & Macfarlane-Dick, M. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199–218. CrossRef

Pereira, D., Flores, M. A., Veiga Simão, A. M., & Barros, A. (2016). Effectiveness and relevance of feedback in Higher Education: A study of undergraduate students. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 49, 7–14. CrossRef

Poulos, A., & Mahony, M. J. (2008). Effectiveness of feedback: The students' perspective. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(2), 143–154. CrossRef

Price, M., Handley, K., Millar, J., & O'Donovan, B. (2010). Feedback: All that effort, but what is the effect? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(3), 277–289. CrossRef

Razdevšek-Pučko, C. (1992). Preverjanje znanja kot povezava med poučevanjem in učenjem [Formative assessment as link between teaching and learning]. Sodobna pedagogika, 43(5–6), 235–243.

Razdevšek Pučko, C. (1994). Nova doktrina preverjanja znanja kot odgovor na spremembe v šoli [A new paradigm of examining knowledge in response to changes in school]. Sodobna pedagogika, 45/111(3–4), 132–139.

Razdevšek Pučko, C. (2004). Formativno preverjanje znanja in vloga povratne informacije [Formative knowledge assessment and the role of feedback]. Sodobna pedagogika, 55/121(1), 126–139.

Rutar Ilc, Z. (2014). Spremljanje in preverjanje, ki podpirata kakovostno učenje [Evaluation and assessment that support quality learning]. Vzgoja in izobraževanje, 45(5–6), 3–4.

Šteh, B. (2012). Stari - novi izzivi preverjanja in ocenjevanja znanja [Old - new challenges of knowledge assessment]. V B. Šteh (ur.), Preverjanje in ocenjevanje znanja ter vrednotenje dosežkov v vzgoji in izobraževanju [Assessment of knowledge and evaluation of achievements in education] (str. 20–27). Pridobljeno s

Šteh, B., & Šarić, M. (2016). Ocenjevanje v visokem šolstvu: Ovira ali spodbuda za kakovosten študij [Assessment in higher education: An obstacle or an encouragement for quaility study]. V K. Aškerc (ur.), Izboljševanje kakovosti poučevanja in učenja v visokošolskem izobraževanju [Improving the quality of teaching and learning in higher education] (str. 64–69). Ljubljana, Slovenija: Center RS za mobilnost in evropske programe izobraževanja in usposabljanja.

Weaver, M. R. (2006). Do students value feedback? Student perceptions of tutors' written responses. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 31(3), 379–394. CrossRef

Wiliam, D. (2013). Vloga formativnega vrednotenja v učinkovitih učnih okoljih [The role of formative assessment in effective learning environments]. V H. Dumont, D. Istance in F. Benavides (ur.), O naravi učenja: Uporaba raziskav za navdih prakse [The nature of learning: Using research to inspire practice] (str. 123–145). Ljubljana, Slovenija: Zavod Republike Slovenije za šolstvo.

Winstone, N. E., Nash, R. A., Rowntree, J., & Parker, M. (2017). 'It'd be useful, but I wouldn't use it': Barriers to university students' feedback seeking and recipience. Studies in Higher Education, 42(1), 2026–2041. CrossRef

Xu, Y., & Harfitt, G. (2018). Is assessment for learning feasible in large classes? Challenges and coping strategies from three case studies. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 47(5), 472–486. CrossRef

Yorke, M. (2003). Formative assessment in higher education: Moves towards theory and the enhacement of pedagogic practice. Higher Education, 45(4), 477–501. CrossRef

Yorke, M. (2009). Grading student achievement in higher education. V M. Tight, K. H. Mok, J. Huisman in C. C. Morphew (ur.), The Routledge international handbook of higher education (str. 211–223). New York, NY, ZDA: Routledge. CrossRef

« Back to Volume 29 (2020)