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Psihološka obzorja :: Horizons of Psychology

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« Nazaj na Letnik 29 (2020)

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Kognitivno-vedenjska obravnava samopoškodbenega vedenja v mladostništvu

Barbara Dolenc

pdf Polno besedilo (pdf)  |  Ogledi: 120  |  flagNapisan v slovenščini.  |  Objavljeno: 27. marec 2020

pdf https://doi.org/10.20419/2020.29.507  |  Citati: CrossRef (0)

Povzetek: Namen prispevka je predstaviti kognitivno-vedenjske strategije za obravnavo mladostnic in mladostnikov, ki se samopoškodujejo, kar je lahko v pomoč vsem, ki se v klinični praksi srečujejo s tovrstno problematiko. Samopoškodbeno vedenje je opredeljeno kot samozastrupitev ali samopoškodba in se navadno pojavi med 11. in 15. letom starosti. V obdobju mladostništva je razširjenost tovrstnega vedenja med 12 in 23 %, med klinično populacijo pa je pogostost takega vedenja še večja. Med najmočnejšimi napovedniki tveganja za samopoškodbeno vedenje so psihiatrične bolezni. Mladostniki pogosto poročajo tudi o občutkih kronične praznine, odtujenosti in izolacije, o brezupnosti, nemoči, neljubljenosti, nizki samopodobi in nizki frustracijski toleranci. S samopoškodbenim vedenjem so povezane predvsem težave v uravnavanju čustev ter šibke spretnosti za reševanje problemov. Če mladostniki, ki se samopoškodujejo, ne poiščejo pomoči, se lahko samopoškodbeno vedenje stopnjuje v svoji resnosti, ter hkrati predstavlja močan napovednik tveganja za samomor, zaradi česar je obravnava tovrstnega vedenja izrednega pomena. Pri obravnavi samopoškodbenega vedenja se je kognitivno-vedenjska terapija izkazala kot eden izmed učinkovitih ukrepov. Znotraj obravnave je poudarek na uravnavanju čustev, obravnavi disfunkcionalnih misli in prepričanj, okrepitvi na področju vedenjskih spretnosti (kot je reševanje problemov) ter izboljšanju medosebnih odnosov, hkrati pa poudarjamo tudi sprejemajoč, čuječ odnos do sebe in do lastne preteklosti. Raziskave kažejo, da so mladostniki po obravnavi poročali o manj pogostem samopoškodbenem vedenju in samomorilnih mislih, hkrati pa so se zmanjšali tudi simptomi depresivnosti in anksioznosti, izboljšala se je samopodoba, mladostniki so bolje uravnavali svoja čustva in težave ustrezneje reševali.

Ključne besede: samopoškodbeno vedenje, mladostništvo, kognitivno-vedenjska terapija, uravnavanje čustev, reševanje problemov


Citiraj:
Dolenc, B. (2020). Kognitivno-vedenjska obravnava samopoškodbenega vedenja v mladostništvu [Cognitive-behavioural therapy of deliberate self-harm in adolescence]. Psihološka obzorja, 29, 21–31. https://doi.org/10.20419/2020.29.507


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