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Psihološka obzorja :: Horizons of Psychology

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Uvod v kognitivni trening

Vojko Kavčič

pdf Polno besedilo (pdf)  |  Ogledi: 16  |  flagNapisan v slovenščini.  |  Objavljeno: 7. maj 2021

pdf https://doi.org/10.20419/2021.30.539  |  Citati: CrossRef (0)

Povzetek: V zadnjih nekaj desetletjih se je izredno povečalo zanimanje za kognitivni trening in njegovo uporabo. Kognitivni trening (KT), ki je pogosto omenjen tudi kot umovadba, možganski trening ipd., opredeljujemo kot vodeno vadbo specifičnih nalog, običajno strukturiranih, z namenom izboljšanja umskih sposobnosti. Posamezniki lahko vadijo različne kognitivne procese, od pozornosti do različnih vrst spomina, izvršilnih sposobnosti, hitrosti procesiranja informacij in reševanja problemov. V tem članku je predstavlje-nih nekaj temeljnih značilnosti KT. Po kratki predstavitvi zgodovinskega ozadja KT sledi opis osnovnih parametrov KT, povzetih po metaanalizi Lampita idr. (2014). Posebej je predstavljen računalniški KT in njegove prednosti. Večina članka je namenjena razpravi o kriterijih za opredelitev uspešnosti kognitivnih treningov, s poudarkom na trajanju učinkov KT in daljnem transferu, tj. izboljšanju tistih umskih sposobnosti, ki niso bile neposredno vključene v KT. Omenjena je tudi nevroplastičnost kot možganska podlaga KT. Članek zaključuje, da bo potrebnih še veliko študij, ki bodo natančneje preučile vse potrebne lastnosti KT za dober, učinkovit in trajnejši uspeh, kakor tudi študij, ki bodo natančneje preučile izbor izhodnih mer za zanesljivo in veljavno merjenje učinkov KT. Področje KT je kljub vsemu obetavno področje psihologije, nevroznanosti in sorodnih disciplin, ki lahko veliko prispeva posamezniku in družbi.

Ključne besede: kognitivni trening, transfer, daljni transfer, nevroplastičnost


Citiraj:
Kavčič, V. (2021). Uvod v kognitivni trening [Introduction to cognitive training]. Psihološka obzorja, 30, 26–33. https://doi.org/10.20419/2021.30.539


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