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Psihološka obzorja :: Horizons of Psychology

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« Nazaj na Letnik 31 (2022)

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Metakognitivne in kognitivne sposobnosti ruskih srednješolcev in dodiplomskih študentov pri bralnem razumevanju: razlage z različnih gledišč

Irina V. Korotaeva in Anastasia N. Sidneva

pdf Polno besedilo (pdf)  |  Ogledi: 39  |  flagNapisan v angleščini.  |  Objavljeno: 16. september 2022

pdf https://doi.org/10.20419/2022.31.558  |  Citati: CrossRef (0)

Povzetek: Namen študije je bilo identificirati značilnosti učnih sposobnosti srednješolcev in dodiplomskih študentov pri delu z razlagalnimi učnimi besedili v odvisnosti od ravni njihovega logičnega mišljenja. V eksperimentu je sodelovali 669 študentov tretjega in četrtega letnih univerzititnega študija (bodoči filologi [n = 351], učitelji [n = 90], psihologi [n = 96] in geologi [n = 132]) ter 121 srednješolskih učencev. Za identifikacijo spontanih strategij razumevanja besedila smo uporabili dve metodi: »izberi glavno poved« (Mal’skaya in Sidel’nikova, 1984) ter »poišči neskladnosti« (Korotaeva, 2000). Poleg tega smo logično mišljenje diagnosticirali z uporabo naslednjih metod: nalog za izravnavo spremenljivk v procesu potrjevanja in preverjanja hipotez, »rastlinskega problema« (Kuhn in Brannock, 1977) ter Badelleyevega testa sklepanja. Rezultati pri naših udeležencih kažejo, da je razumevanje besedila pomembno povezano z ravnjo posameznikovih logičnih operacij. Sposobnost označevanja najbomembnejšega dela besedila in sposobnsost zaznave neskladij v besedilu sta bili nizko pozitivno povezani. Študija je prav tako pokazala razlike v kakovosti dela z besedilom in obvladovanju logičnih tehnik med študenti različnih študijskih smeri, pri čemer so najnižje rezultate dosegli študenti pedagoških smeri. Sposobnost študentov za označevanje glavnih povedi smo primerjali s sposobnostjo srednješolcev (10. razred, povprečna starost 17,3 let). O rezultatih razpravljamo z dveh teoretskih gledišč: kognitivnega pristopa ter pristopa kulturno-zgodovinskih dejavnosti.

Ključne besede: bralno razumevanje, pojasnevalna učna besedila, logično mišljenje, dodiplomski študenti, srednješolci


Citiraj:
Korotaeva, I. V. in Sidneva, A. N. (2022). Metacognitive and cognitive abilities in reading comprehension among Russian upper secondary and undergraduate students: Explanations from different points of view. Psihološka obzorja, 31, 501–515. https://doi.org/10.20419/2022.31.558


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