This site uses cookies for user authentication, optional permanent login and monitoring the number of page views (Google Analytics).
Do you agree with cookies being used in accordance with our Privacy policy? You can change your decision regarding the use of cookies on the Privacy page.

I want to know more

Horizons of Psychology :: Psihološka obzorja

Scientific and Professional Psychological Journal of the Slovenian Psychologists' Association

Indexed in:
Scopus
PsycINFO
Academic OneFile

Member of DOAJ and CrossRef

sien
CONTENTS FOR AUTHORS ABOUT EDITORIAL BOARD LINKS

Search

My Account

Most viewed articles

 

« Back to Volume 22 (2013)

flag Pojdi na slovensko stran članka / Go to the article page in Slovene


Are insecure jobs as bad for mental health and occupational commitment as unemployment? Equal threat or downward spiral

Kathleen Otto & Claudia Dalbert

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 119  |  flagWritten in English.  |  Published: January 23, 2014

pdf https://doi.org/10.20419/2013.22.375  |  Cited By: CrossRef (6)

Abstract: We investigated the significance of unemployment and job insecurity for mental health (self-esteem; life satisfaction) and occupational commitment (occupational self-efficacy; affective occupational commitment) comparing the "equal threat" assumption with the "downward spiral" assumption. Whereas the equal threat model suggests that unemployment and (perceived) insecure employment are similarly threatening phenomena, the downward spiral model assumes that there might be a spectrum of employment insecurity, ranging from secure employment to long-term unemployment, that is associated with decreasing mental health and occupational commitment. Controlling for socio-demographic background variables and personality traits, results of ANCOVAs, in which we distinguished between workers who were (more or less) securely employed and those who were either insecurely employed or short- or long-term unemployed revealed that the insecurely employed workers were no better off than those who were (short-term) unemployed - in line with the equal threat hypothesis. Only for occupational self-efficacy did we find some support for the downward spiral model.

Keywords: unemployment, job security, mental health, organizational commitment, occupational self-efficacy


Cite:
Otto, K., & Dalbert, C. (2013). Are insecure jobs as bad for mental health and occupational commitment as unemployment? Equal threat or downward spiral. Psihološka obzorja, 22, 27–38. https://doi.org/10.20419/2013.22.375


Reference list


Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control . New York, NY, USA: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Bender, S., Konietzka, D., & Sopp, P. (2000). Diskontinuität im Erwerbsverlauf und betrieblicher Kontext [Discontinuity in the course of employment and operational context]. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 52, 475–499. CrossRef

Berkowitz, B., & Green, R. E. (1965). Changes in intellect with age: V. Differential changes as functions of time interval and original score. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 53, 179–192. CrossRef

Broom, D. H., D'Souza, R. M., Strazdins, L., Butterworth, P., Parslow, R., & Rodgers, B. (2006). The lesser evil: Bad jobs or unemployment? A survey of mid-aged Australians. Social Science & Medicine, 63, 575–586. CrossRef

Butterworth, P., Leach, L. S., Strazdins, L., Olesen, S. C., Rodgers, B., & Broom D. H. (2011). The psychosocial quality of work determines whether employment has benefits for mental health: Results from a longitudinal national household panel survey. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 68, 806–812. CrossRef

Clark, A. E., Diener, E., Georgellis, Y., & Lucas, R. E. (2008). Lags and leads in life satisfaction: A test of the baseline hypothesis. The Economic Journal, 118, 222–243. CrossRef

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1989). NEO-PI/FFI Manual Supplement. Odessa, FL, USA: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Creed, P. A., Muller, J., & Machin, M. A. (2001). The role of satisfaction with occupational status, neuroticism, financial strain and categories of experience in predicting mental health in the unemployed. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 435–447. CrossRef

Dalbert, C. (1992). Subjektives Wohlbefinden junger Erwachsener: Theoretische und empirische Analysen der Struktur und Stabilität [Subjective well-being of young adults: Theoretical and empirical analyses of the structure and stability]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 13, 207–220.

De Witte, H. (1999). Job insecurity and psychological well-being: Review of the literature and exploration of some unresolved issues. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8, 155–177. CrossRef

Dekker, S., & Schaufeli, W. (1995). The effects of job insecurity on psychological health and withdrawal: a longitudinal study. Australian Psychologist, 30, 57–63. CrossRef

DeNeve, K. M., & Cooper, H. (1998). The happy personality: A meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 197–229. CrossRef

Deusinger, I. M. (1986). Die Frankfurter Selbstkonzeptskalen [The Frankfurt Self-Concept Scales]. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.

Dzuka, J., & Dalbert, C. (2002). Mental health and personality of Slovak unemployed adolescents: The impact of belief in a just world. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 732–757. CrossRef

Epstein, S. (1979). Entwurf einer Integrativen Persönlichkeitstheorie [Design an integrative personality theory]. In S. H. Filipp (Ed.), Selbstkonzept-Forschung [Self-concept research] (pp. 15–46). Stuttgart, Germany: Klett.

Elovainio, M., Kivimäki, M., Kortteinen, M., & Tuomikoski, H. (2001). Socioeconomic status, hostility and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 303–315. CrossRef

Eurobarometer (2012). Standard Eurobarometer 78: Public opinion in the European Union. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/index_en.htm Grobe, T. (2006). Sterben Arbeitslose früher [Are the unemployed dying earlier]? In A. Hollederer, & H. Brand (Eds.), Arbeitslosigkeit, Gesundheit und Krankheit [Unemployment, health and disease] (pp. 75–83). Bern, Switzerland: Huber.

Grün, C., Hauser, W., & Rhein, T. (2010). Is any job better than no job? Life satisfaction and re-employment. Journal of Labour Research, 31, 285–306. CrossRef

Grzywacz, J. G., & Dooley, D. (2003). ''Good jobs'' to ''bad jobs'': Replicated evidence of an employment continuum from two large surveys. Social Science & Medicine, 56, 1749–1760. CrossRef

Hays, W. L. (1980). Statistics for the social sciences. London, United Kingdom: Holt.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513–524. CrossRef

Hobfoll, S. E., & Shirom. A. (2001). Conservation of resources theory: Applications to stress and management in the workplace. In R. T. Golembiewski (Ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior (pp. 57–80). New York, NY, USA: Dekker.

Jackson, T. (1999). Differences in psychosocial experiences of employed, unemployed, and student samples of young adults. The Journal of Psychology, 133, 49–60. CrossRef

Jahoda, M. (1997). Manifest and latent functions. In N. Nicholson (Ed.), The Blackwell encyclopedic dictionary of organizational psychology (pp. 317–318). Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell.

Judge, T. A. (2009). Core self-evaluations and work success. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 58–62. CrossRef

Keddy, B., Cable, B., Quinn, S., & Melanson, J. (1993). Interrupted work histories: Retired women telling their stories. Health Care for Women International, 14, 437–446. CrossRef

Kieselbach, T. (2003). Long-term unemployment among young people: The risk of social exclusion. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32, 69–76. CrossRef

Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., & Mauno, S. (2003). Job insecurity and self-esteem: Evidence from cross-lagged relations in a 1-year longitudinal sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 617–632. CrossRef

Kulik, L. (2001). Assessing job search intensity and unemployment-related attitudes among young adults: Intergender differences. Journal of Career Assessment, 9, 153–167. CrossRef

Lee, K., Carswell, J. J., & Allen, N. J. (2000). A meta-analytic review of occupational commitment: Relations with person- and work-related variables. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 799–811. CrossRef

Letkemann, P. (2002). Unemployed professionals, stigma management, and derivative stigmata. Work, Employment & Society, 16, 511–522. CrossRef

Lucas, R. E., Clark, A. E., Georgellis, Y., & Diener, E. (2004). Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction. Psychological Science, 15, 8–13. CrossRef

Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 616–628. CrossRef

Mantler, J., Matejicek, A., Matheson, K, & Anisman, H. (2005). Coping with employment uncertainty: A Comparison of employed and unemployed workers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 200–209. CrossRef

Mark, A. S., & Mueller, J. (2000). Job insecurity, coping resources and personality dispositions in occupational strain. Work & Stress, 14, 312–328. CrossRef

Mauno, S., Feldt, T., Tolvanen, A., Hyvönen, K., & Kinnunen, U. (2011). Prospective relationships between career disruptions and subjective well-being: Evidence from a three-wave follow-up study. International Archives of Occupational Environmental Health, 84, 501–512. CrossRef

McKee-Ryan, F. M., Song, Z., Wanberg, C. R., & Kinicki, A. J. (2005). Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment. A meta-analytic study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 53–76. CrossRef

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C.A. (1993). Commitment to organizations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 538–551. CrossRef

Mohr, G. (2000). The changing significance of different stressors after the announcement of bankrupty: A longitudinal investigation with special emphasis on job insecurity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 337–359. CrossRef

Mohr, G., & Otto, K. (2011). Health effects of unemployment and job insecurity. In A. S. Antoniou, & C. Cooper (Eds.), New directions in organizational psychology and behavioral medicine (pp. 289–311). Gower Publishing, United Kingdom: Surrey.

Neuberger, O., & Allerbeck, M. (1978). Messung und Analyse von Arbeitszufriedenheit [Measurement and analysis of job satisfaction]. Bern, Switzerland: Huber.

Oberholzer-Gee, F. (2008). Nonemployment stigma as rational herding: A field experiment. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 65, 30–40. CrossRef

Otto, K., & Dalbert, C. (2012). Individual differences in job-related relocation readiness: The impact of personality dispositions and social orientations. Career Development International, 17, 168–186. CrossRef

Otto, K., Dette-Hagenmeyer, D. E., & Dalbert, C. (2010). Occupational mobility in members of the labor force: Explaining the willingness to change occupations. Journal of Career Development, 36, 262–288. CrossRef

Otto, K., Hoffmann-Biencourt, A., & Mohr, G. (2011). Is there a buffering effect of flexibility for job attitudes and work-related strain under conditions of high job insecurity and regional unemployment rate? Economic and Industrial Democracy, 32, 609–630. CrossRef

Paul, K. I., Geithner, E., & Moser, K. (2009). Latent deprivation among people who are employed, unemployed, or out of the labor force. The Journal of Psychology, 143, 477–491. CrossRef

Paul, K., & Moser, K. (2006). Quantitative reviews in psychological unemployment research: An overview. In T. Kieselbach, A. Winefield, C. Byod, & S. Anderson (Eds.), Unemployment and health (pp. 51–59). Brisbane, Australia: Australian Academic Press.

Paul, K. I., & Moser, K. (2009). Unemployment impairs mental health: Meta-analyses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 264–282. CrossRef

Rigotti, T., Schyns, B., & Mohr, G. (2008). A short version of the occupational self-efficacy scale: Structural and construct validity across five countries. Journal of Career Assessment, 16, 238–255. CrossRef

Rosenberg, M., Schoenbach, C., Schooler, C., & Rosenberg, F. (1995). Global self-esteem and specific self-esteem: Different concepts, different outcomes. American Sociological Review, 60, 141–156. CrossRef

Rosenblatt, Z., & Ruvio, A. (1996). A test of a multidimensional model of job insecurity: The case of Israeli teachers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 587–605. CrossRef

Saloniemi, A., & Zeytinoglu, I. U. (2007). Achieving flexibility through insecurity: A comparison of work environments in fixed-term and permanent jobs in Finland and Canada. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 13, 109–128. CrossRef

Schwarz, P. (2012). Neighborhood effects of high unemployment rates: Welfare implications among different social groups. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 41, 180–188. CrossRef

Schyns, B., & von Collani, G. (2002). A new occupational self-efficacy scale and its relation to personality constructs and organizational variables. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 219–241. CrossRef

Soldz, S., & Vaillant, G. E. (1999). The Big Five personality traits and the life course: A 45-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 208–232. CrossRef

Spector, P. E., & Brannick, M. T. (2011). Methodological urban legends: The misuse of statistical control variables. Organizational Research Methods, 14, 287–305. CrossRef

Sverke, M., Hellgren, J., & Näswall, K. (2002). No security: A meta-analysis and review of job insecurity and its consequences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 242–264. CrossRef

Trautwein, U., Köller, O., Watermann, R., Lüdtke, O., Maaz, K., Nagy, G., & Baumert, J. (2000). Bildungsverläufe und psychosoziale Entwicklung im Jugend- und jungen Erwachsenenalter (BIJU): Längsschnitt 1: Dokumentation der 6. Datenerhebung [Educational pathways and psychosocial development in youth and young adulthood (BIJU): longitudinal section 1: Documentation of 6th data collection]. Berlin, Germany: Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung, Unpublished Scale.

Vinokur, A. D., & Schul, Y. (2002). The Web of coping resources and pathways to reemployment following a job loss. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 68–83. CrossRef


Cited By via CrossRef (6)

The joint impact of microeconomic parameters and job insecurity perceptions on commitment towards one’s job, occupation and career: A multilevel approach
       Kathleen Otto, Gisela Mohr, Maria U Kottwitz, Sabine Korek
       Economic and Industrial Democracy, 2016
       https://doi.org/10.1177/0143831X14535822

Age and career commitment: Meta-analytic tests of competing linear versus curvilinear relationships
       Ian M. Katz, Cort W. Rudolph, Hannes Zacher
       Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2019
       https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2019.03.001

Children of Mentally III Parents at Risk Evaluation (COMPARE): Design and Methods of a Randomized Controlled Multicenter Study—Part I
       Hanna Christiansen, Corinna Reck, Anna-Lena Zietlow, Kathleen Otto, Ricarda Steinmayr ...
       Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2019
       https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00128

Two sides of workplace interactions: How appreciation and social stressors shape the relationship between job insecurity and well-being
       Mauricio E. Garrido Vásquez, Patricia Garrido-Vásquez, Kathleen Otto
       Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 2020
       https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v16i3.2023

Caught Between Autonomy and Insecurity: A Work-Psychological View on Resources and Strain of Small Business Owners in Germany
       Kathleen Otto, Martin Mabunda Baluku, Lena Hünefeld, Maria U. Kottwitz
       Frontiers in Psychology, 2020
       https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.525613

Maintaining High Eudaimonic Wellbeing Despite Ambiguity Intolerance Among Three Employment Status Groups: Examining the Buffering Effects of Positive Psychological Attributes
       Martin Mabunda Baluku, Edward Bantu, Betty Namale, Kathleen Otto
       International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology, 2021
       https://doi.org/10.1007/s41042-021-00051-1


« Back to Volume 22 (2013)