This site uses cookies for user authentication, optional permanent login and monitoring the number of page views (Google Analytics).
Do you agree with cookies being used in accordance with our Privacy policy? You can change your decision regarding the use of cookies on the Privacy page.

I want to know more

Horizons of Psychology :: Psihološka obzorja

Scientific and Professional Psychological Journal of the Slovenian Psychologists' Association

Indexed in:
Scopus
PsycINFO
Academic OneFile

Member of DOAJ and CrossRef

sien
CONTENTS FOR AUTHORS ABOUT EDITORIAL BOARD LINKS

Search

My Account

Most viewed articles

 

« Back to Volume 23 (2014)

flag Pojdi na slovensko stran članka / Go to the article page in Slovene


Order information coding in working memory: Review of behavioural studies and cognitive mechanisms

Barbara Dolenc & Grega Repovš

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 210  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: June 8, 2014

pdf https://doi.org/10.20419/2014.23.391  |  Cited By: CrossRef (0)

Abstract: Executive processes, such as coding for sequential order, are of extreme importance for higher-order cognitive tasks. One of the significant questions is, how order information is coded in working memory and what cognitive mechanisms and processes mediate it. The aim of this review paper is to summarize results of studies that explore whether order and item memory are two separable processes. Furthermore, we reviewed evidence for each of the proposed cognitive mechanism that might mediate order processing. Previous behavioural and neuroimaging data suggest different representation and processing of item and order information in working memory. Both information are maintained and recalled separately and this separation seems to hold for recognition as well as for recall. To explain the result of studies of order coding, numerous cognitive mechanisms were proposed. We focused on four different mechanisms by which order information might be coded and retrieved, namely inter-item associations, direct coding, hierarchical coding and magnitude coding. Each of the mechanisms can explain some of the aspect of order information coding, however none of them is able to explain all of the empirical findings. Due to its complex nature it is not surprising that a single mechanism has difficulties accounting for all the behavioral data and order memory may be more accurately characterized as the result of a set of mechanisms rather than a single one. Moreover, the findings beget a question of whether different types of memory for order information might exist.

Keywords: working memory, serial order coding, cognitive mechanisms


Cite:
Dolenc, B., & Repovš, G. (2014). Kodiranje informacije o vrstnem redu v delovnem spominu: pregled vedenjskih raziskav in kognitivnih mehanizmov [Order information coding in working memory: Review of behavioural studies and cognitive mechanisms]. Psihološka obzorja, 23, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.20419/2014.23.391


Reference list


Acheson, D. J., & MacDonald, M. C. (2009). Verbal working memory and language production: Common approaches to the serial ordering of verbal information. Psychological Bulletin, 135(1), 50–68. CrossRef

Agam, Y., Huang, J., & Sekuler, R. (2010). Neural correlates of sequence encoding in visuomotor learning. Journal of Neurophysiology, 103(3), 1418–1424. CrossRef

Anderson, J. R., & Matessa, M. (1997). A production system theory of serial memory. Psychological Review, 104(4), 728–748. CrossRef

Awh, E., Jonides, J., Smith, E. E., Schumacher, E. H., Koeppe, R. A., & Katz, S. (1996). Dissociation of storage and rehearsal in verbal working memory: Evidence from positron emission tomography. Psychological Science, 7(1), 25–31. CrossRef

Baddeley, A. (1968). How does acoustic similarity influence short-term memory? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20(3), 249–264. CrossRef

Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. Oxford, Velika Britanija: Clarendon Press.

Baddeley, A. (2002). Is working memory still working? European Psychologist, 7(2), 85–97. CrossRef

Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(10), 829–839. CrossRef

Baddeley, A. (2007). Working memory, thought, and action. Oxford, Velika Britanija: Oxford University Press. CrossRef

Bjork, E. J., & Healy, A. F. (1974). Short-term order and item retention. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13(1), 80–97. CrossRef

Botvinick, M. M., & Plaut, D. C. (2006). Short-term memory for serial order: A recurrent neural network model. Psychological Review, 113(2), 201–233. CrossRef

Brown, G. D. A., Morin, C., & Lewandowsky, S. (2006). Evidence for time-based models of free recall. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13(4), 717–723. CrossRef

Brown, G. D. A., Preece, T., & Hulme, C. (2000). Oscillator-based memory for serial order. Psychological Review, 107(1), 127–181. CrossRef

Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. J. (1992). Toward a network model of the articulatory loop. Journal of Memory and Language, 31(4), 429–460. CrossRef

Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. J. (1999). Memory for serial order: A network model of the phonological loop and its timing. Psychological Review, 106(3), 551–581. CrossRef

Cabeza, R., Mangels, J., Nyberg, L., Habib, R., Houle, S., McIntosh, A. R., & Tulving, E. (1997). Brain regions differentially involved in remembering what and when: a PET study. Neuron, 19(4), 863–870. CrossRef

Cabeza, R., Nichole, N. D., Houle, S., Mangels, J. A., & Nyberg, L. (2000). Age-related differences in neural activity during item and temporal-order memory retrieval: A positron emission tomography study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(1), 197–206. CrossRef

Cantor, J., & Engle, R. W. (1993). Working-memory capacity as long-term memory activation: An individual-differences approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19(5), 1101–1114. CrossRef

Carpenter, A. F., Georgopoulos, A. P., & Pellizzer, G. (1999). Motor cortical encoding of serial order in a context-recall task. Science, 283(5408), 1752–1757. CrossRef

Carretti, B., Borella, E., Cornoldi, C., & De Beni, R. (2009). Role of working memory in explaining the performance of individuals with specific reading comprehension difficulties: A meta-analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(2), 246–251. CrossRef

Conrad, R. (1965). Order error in immediate recall of sequences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 4(3), 161–169. CrossRef

Cowan, N. (1993). Activation, attention, and short-term memory. Memory & Cognition, 21(2), 162–167. CrossRef

Crowder, R. G. (1968). Evidence for the chaining hypothesis of serial verbal learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76(4), 497–500. CrossRef

Daneman, M., & Merikle, P. M. (1996). Working memory and language comprehension: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 3(4), 422–433. CrossRef

Dell, G. S., Burger, L. K., & Svec, W. R. (1997). Language production and serial order: A functional analysis and a model. Psychological Review, 104(1), 123–147. CrossRef

D'Esposito, M., Detre, J. A., Alsop, D. C., Shin, R. K., Atlas, S., & Grossman, M. (1995). The neural basis of the central executive system of working memory. Nature, 378(6554), 279–281. CrossRef

D'Esposito, M., Postle, B. R., Ballard, D., & Lease, J. (1999). Maintenance versus manipulation of information held in working memory: An event-related fMRI study. Brain and Cognition, 41(1), 66–86. CrossRef

Engelkamp, J., & Dehn, D. M. (2000). Item and order information in subject-performed tasks and experimenter-performed tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26(3), 671–682. CrossRef

Farrell, S. (2008). Multiple roles for time in short-term memory: Evidence from serial recall of order and timing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34(1), 128–145. CrossRef

Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29(5), 838–849. CrossRef

Gathercole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (1990). Phonological memory deficits in language-disordered children: Is there a causal connection? Journal of Memory and Language, 29(3), 336–360. CrossRef

Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1995). Architecture of the prefrontal cortex and the central executive. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 769(1), 71–83. CrossRef

Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1996). The prefrontal landscape: Implications of functional architecture for understanding human mentation and the central executive. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 351(1346), 1445–1453. CrossRef

Grossberg, S. (1978). Behavioral contrast in short-term memory: Serial binary memory models or parallel continuous memory models? Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 17(3), 199–219. CrossRef

Gupta, P., & MacWhinney, B. (1997). Vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory: Computational and neural bases. Brain and Language, 59(2), 267–333. CrossRef

Henderson, L., & Matthews, M. L. (1970). Perception and memory loss of item and order information in short-term memory. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 9(2), 231–233. CrossRef

Henson, R. N. A. (1998). Short-term memory for serial order: The start-end model. Cognitive Psychology, 36(2), 73–137. CrossRef

Henson, R. N. A. (1999a). Coding position in short-term memory. International Journal of Psychology, 34(5), 403–409. CrossRef

Henson, R. N. A. (1999b). Positional information in short-term memory: Relative or absolute? Memory & Cognition, 27(5), 915–927. CrossRef

Henson, R. N. A. (2001). Serial order in short-term memory. The Psychologist, 14(2), 70–73.

Henson, R. N. A., Burgess, N., & Frith, C. D. (2000). Recoding, storage, rehearsal and grouping in verbal short-term memory: An fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 38(4), 426–440. CrossRef

Henson, R. N. A., Hartley, T., Burgess, N., Hitch, G., & Flude, B. (2003). Selective interference with verbal short-term memory for serial order information: A new paradigm and tests of a timing signal hypothesis. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology section A: Human Experimental Psychology, 56(8), 1307–1334.

Henson, R. N. A., Norris, D. G., Page, M. P. A., & Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Unchained memory: Error patterns rule out chaining models of immediate serial recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology section A: Human Experimental Psychology, 49(1), 80–115. CrossRef

Johnson, G. J. (1991). A distinctiveness model of serial learning. Psychological Review, 98(2), 204–217. CrossRef

Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Mitchell, K. J., Greene, E. J., & Anderson, A. W. (2003). fMRI evidence for organization of prefrontal cortex by both type of process and type of information. Cerebral Cortex, 13(3), 265–273. CrossRef

Jonides, J., Lacey, S. C., & Nee, D. E. (2005). Processes of working memory in brain and mind. Current Directions Psychological Science, 14(1), 2–5. CrossRef

Jonides, J., Smith, E. E., Marshuetz, C., Koeppe, R. A., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (1998). Inhibition in verbal working memory revealed by brain activation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(14), 8410–8413. CrossRef

Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory. Psychological Review, 99(1), 122–149. CrossRef

Kahana, M. J., & Jacobs, J. (2000). Interresponse times in serial recall: Effects of intraserial repetition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26(5), 1188–1197. CrossRef

Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2002). The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention and general fluid intelligence: An individual differences perspective. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9(4), 637–671. CrossRef

Keele, S. W., Ivry, R., Mayr, U., Hazeltine, E., & Heuer, H. (2003). The cognitive and neural architecture of sequence representation. Psychological Review, 110(2), 316–339. CrossRef

Kyllonen, P. C., & Christal, R. E. (1990). Reasoning ability is (little more than) working-memory capacity?!. Intelligence, 14(4), 389–433. CrossRef

Leclercq, A.-L., & Majerus, S. (2010). Serial-order short-term memory predicts vocabulary development: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 46(2), 417–427. CrossRef

Lee, C. L., & Estes, W. K. (1981). Item and order information in short-term memory: Evidence for multilevel perturbation processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory7(3), 149–169. CrossRef

Marshuetz, C. (2005). Order information in working memory: An integrative review of evidence from brain and behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 131(3), 323–339. CrossRef

Marshuetz, C., & Smith, E. E. (2006). Working memory for order information: Multiple cognitive and neural mechanisms. Neuroscience, 139(1), 195–200. CrossRef

Marshuetz, C., Smith, E. E., Jonides, J., DeGutis, J., & Chenevert, T. L. (2000). Order information in working memory: fMRI evidence for parietal and prefrontal mechanisms. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(2), 130–144. CrossRef

McElree, B., & Dosher, B. A. (1993). Serial retrieval processes in the recovery of order information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122(3), 291–315. CrossRef

Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81–97. CrossRef

Moyer, R. S., & Landauer, T. K. (1967). Time required for judgments of numerical inequality. Nature, 215(5109), 1519–1520.

Mulligan, N. W. (1999). The effects of perceptual interference at encoding on organization and order: Investigating the roles of item-specific and relational information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25(1), 54–69. CrossRef

Murdock, B. B. (1993). TODAM2: A model for the storage and retrieval of item, associative, and serial order information. Psychological Review, 100(2), 183–203. CrossRef

Nairne, J. S. (1991). Positional uncertainty in long-term memory. Memory & Cognition, 19(4), 332–340. CrossRef

Nairne, J. S. (1992). The loss of positional certainty in long-term memory. Psychological Science, 3(3), 199–202. CrossRef

Neath, I. (1993). Distinctiveness and serial position effects in recognition. Memory & Cognition, 21(5), 689–698. CrossRef

Neath, I., & Crowder, R. G. (1990). Schedules of presentation and temporal distinctiveness in human memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16(2), 316–327. CrossRef

Owen, A. M., McMillan, K. M., Laird, A. R., & Bullmore, E. (2005). N-back working memory paradigm: A meta-analysis of normative functional neuroimaging studies. Human Brain Mapping, 25(1), 46–59. CrossRef

Page, M. P. A., & Norris, D. (1998). The primacy model: A new model of immediate serial recall. Psychological Review, 105(4), 761–781. CrossRef

Salthouse, T. A. (1993). Influence of working memory on adult age differences in matrix reasoning. British Journal of Psychology, 84(2), 171–199. CrossRef

Schuck, N. W., Gaschler, R., Keisler, A., & Frensch, P. A. (2012). Position-item associations play a role in the acquisition of order knowledge in an implicit serial reaction time task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38(2), 440–456. CrossRef

Shiffrin, R. M., & Cook, J. R. (1978). Short-term forgetting of item and order information. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17(2), 189–218. CrossRef

Smith, E. E., & Jonides, J. (1999). Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes. Science, 283(5408), 1657–1661. CrossRef

Smith, E. E., Jonides, J., & Koeppe, R. A. (1996). Dissociating verbal and spatial working memory using PET. Cerebral Cortex, 6(1), 11–20. CrossRef

Sternberg, S. (1966). High-Speed Scanning in Human Memory. Psychonomic Science, 8(2), 55–56. CrossRef

Sternberg, S. (1967). Retrieval of contextual information from human memory. Science, 153(3736), 652–654. CrossRef

Wickelgren, W. A. (1967). Rehearsal grouping and hierarchical organization of serial position cues in short-term memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 19(2), 97–102. CrossRef

Young, R. K. (1962). Tests of three hypotheses about the effective stimulus in serial learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(3), 307–313. CrossRef

Zheng, X., Swanson, H. L., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2011). Working memory components as predictors of children's mathematical word problem solving. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110(4), 481–498. CrossRef


« Back to Volume 23 (2014)