This site uses cookies for user authentication, optional permanent login and monitoring the number of page views (Google Analytics).
Do you agree with cookies being used in accordance with our Privacy policy? You can change your decision regarding the use of cookies on the Privacy page.

I want to know more

Horizons of Psychology :: Psihološka obzorja

Scientific and Professional Psychological Journal of the Slovenian Psychologists' Association

Indexed in:
Academic OneFile

Member of DOAJ and CrossRef



My Account

Most viewed articles


« Back to Volume 30 (2021)

flag Pojdi na slovensko stran članka / Go to the article page in Slovene

Effectiveness of computerized cognitive training in nursing homes

Uroš Marušič, Zdenka Milič Žepič & Vojko Kavčič

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 117  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: May 7, 2021

pdf  |  Cited By: CrossRef (0)

Abstract: Maintaining and improving physical and cognitive health is becoming a challenging task, especially for older people who are exposed to accelerated age- or neurodegenerative-related decline. Existing non-pharmacological interventions may stabilize or slow down cognitive decline, but effective preventive treatments that would delay the symptom onset are currently being explored. One of such non-pharmacological treatments is cognitive training, which has gained in popularity over the last two decades. The aim of our research was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of cognitive training with spatial navigation task in nursing home residents. Thirty-one nursing home residents (mean age = 81.6 years, range 69–94 years; mean MoCA score = 22.8, range 17–27; 7 male) were randomly assigned to control or intervention group, where they underwent a 2-month cognitive training (two-times weekly; altogether 16 sessions) with virtual maze navigation. Participants were measured pre- and post-intervention on neuropsychological assessment battery, while the control group received no specific treatment and performed pre- and post-measurements only. The only significant improvements were found on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) where participants in the intervention group significantly improved as compared to their control counterparts. Despite limited generalization of cognitive training, our intervention was feasible and positively perceived by the majority of nursing home residents. Future studies should evaluate long-term effects and generalization to other functional capabilities as well as activities of daily living. Overall, our study provides empirical evidence that cognitive training is accepted by nursing home residents, and most importantly, can improve mnemonic cognitive abilities.

Keywords: aging, cognitive training, spatial navigation task, virtual maze, transfer of learning, nursing homes

Marušič, U., Milič Žepič, Z., & Kavčič, V. (2021). Učinkovitost računalniškega kognitivnega treninga v domovih starejših občanov [Effectiveness of computerized cognitive training in nursing homes]. Psihološka obzorja, 30, 47–54.

Reference list

Bahar-Fuchs, A., Martyr, A., Goh, A. M., Sabates, J., & Clare, L. (2019). Cognitive training for people with mild to moderate dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. CrossRef

Barry, D., Bates, M. E., & Labouvie, E. (2008). FAS and CFL forms of verbal fluency differ in difficulty: A meta-analytic study. Applied Neuropsychology, 15(2), 97–106. CrossRef

Blazer, D. G., Yaffe, K., & Liverman, C. T. (2015). Cognitive aging: Progress in understanding and opportunities for action. National Academies Press.

Deary, I. J., Corley, J., Gow, A. J., Harris, S. E., Houlihan, L. M., Marioni, R. E., Penke, L., Rafnsson, S. B., & Starr, J. M. (2009). Age-associated cognitive decline. British Medical Bulletin, 92(1), 135–152. CrossRef

Delis, D. C., Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., & Holdnack, J. (2004). Reliability and validity of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System: An update. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10(2), 301–303. CrossRef

Folkerts, A.-K., Roheger, M., Franklin, J., Middelstädt, J., & Kalbe, E. (2017). Cognitive interventions in patients with dementia living in long-term care facilities: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 73, 204–221. CrossRef

Harvey, P. D., McGurk, S. R., Mahncke, H., & Wykes, T. (2018). Controversies in computerized cognitive training. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 3(11), 907–915. CrossRef

Imperl, F. (2012). Kakovost oskrbe starejših-izziv za prihodnost [Quality of caring for the elderly - the challenge for the future]. Firis Imperl.

Lampit, A., Hallock, H., & Valenzuela, M. (2014). Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers. PLoS Medicine, 11(11), članek e1001756. CrossRef

Lindstrom, H. A., Fritsch, T., Petot, G., Smyth, K. A., Chen, C. H., Debanne, S. M., Lerner, A. L., & Friedland, R. P. (2005). The relationships between television viewing in midlife and the development of Alzheimer's disease in a case-control study. Brain and Cognition, 58(2), 157–165. CrossRef

Mapelli, D., Di Rosa, E., Nocita, R., & Sava, D. (2013). Cognitive stimulation in patients with dementia: Randomized controlled trial. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 3(1), 263–271. CrossRef

Marusic, U., Giordani, B., Moffat, S. D., Petrič, M., Dolenc, P., Pišot, R., & Kavcic, V. (2018). Computerized cognitive training during physical inactivity improves executive functioning in older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 25(1), 49–69. CrossRef

Marusic, U.,, & Grosprêtre, S. (2018). Non-physical approaches to counteract age-related functional deterioration: Applications for rehabilitation and neural mechanisms. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(5), 639–649. CrossRef

Marusic, U., Kavcic, V., Giordani, B., Gerževič, M., Meeusen, R., & Pišot, R. (2015). Computerized spatial navigation training during 14 days of bed rest in healthy older adult men: Effect on gait performance. Psychology and Aging, 30(2), 334–340. CrossRef

Marusic, U., Kavcic, V., Pisot, R., & Goswami, N. (2019). The role of enhanced cognition to counteract detrimental effects of prolonged bed rest: Current evidence and perspectives. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, članek 1864. CrossRef

Marusic, U., Verghese, J., & Mahoney, J. R. (2018). Cognitive-based interventions to improve mobility: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 19(6), 484–491. CrossRef

Mewborn, C. M., Lindbergh, C. A., & Miller, L. S. (2017). Cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy, mildly impaired, and mixed samples of older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Neuropsychology Review, 27(4), 403–439. CrossRef

Moffat, S. D., Hampson, E., & Hatzipantelis, M. (1998). Navigation in a "virtual" maze: Sex differences and correlation with psychometric measures of spatial ability in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19(2), 73–87. CrossRef

Nasreddine, Z. S., Phillips, N. A., Bédirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., Cummings, J. L., & Chertkow, H. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: A brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695–699. CrossRef

Van Der Elst, W. I. M., van Boxtel, M. P., van Breukelen, G. J., & Jolles, J. (2005). Rey's verbal learning test: Normative data for 1855 healthy participants aged 24-81 years and the influence of age, sex, education, and mode of presentation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(3), 290–302. CrossRef

Verghese, J., Ayers, E., Mahoney, J. R., Ambrose, A., Wang, C., & Holtzer, R. (2016). Cognitive remediation to enhance mobility in older adults: The CREM study. Neurodegenerative Disease management, 6(6), 457–466. CrossRef

Wang, J. Y. J., Zhou, D. H. D., Li, J., Zhang, M., Deng, J., Tang, M., Gao, C., Li, J., Lian, Y., & Chen, M. (2006). Leisure activity and risk of cognitive impairment: the Chongqing aging study. Neurology, 66(6), 911–913. CrossRef

Wechsler, D. A. (1997). Wechsler adult intelligence scale (3rd ed.). The Psychological Corporation. CrossRef

Wöhl, C., Richter, S., & Blättner, B. (2018). Cognitive interventions in nursing homes: Systematic review of the preventive effectiveness on cognitive performance in persons in need of care. Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 51(6), 656–665. CrossRef

Zakon o socialnem varstvu (ZVS- UPB2) [Social protection act]. (2007). Uradni list RS, št. 3/2007.

Zhuang, J.-P., Fang, R., Feng, X., Xu, X.-H., Liu, L.-H., Bai, Q.-K., Tang, H.-D., Zhao, Z.-G., & Chen, S.-D. (2013). The impact of human-computer interaction-based comprehensive training on the cognitive functions of cognitive impairment elderly individuals in a nursing home. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 36(2), 245–251. CrossRef

« Back to Volume 30 (2021)