This site uses cookies for user authentication, optional permanent login and monitoring the number of page views (Google Analytics).
Do you agree with cookies being used in accordance with our Privacy policy? You can change your decision regarding the use of cookies on the Privacy page.

I want to know more

Horizons of Psychology :: Psihološka obzorja

Scientific and Professional Psychological Journal of the Slovenian Psychologists' Association

Indexed in:
Scopus
PsycINFO
Academic OneFile

Member of DOAJ and CrossRef

sien
CONTENTS FOR AUTHORS ABOUT EDITORIAL BOARD LINKS

Search

My Account

Most viewed articles

 

« Back to Volume 31 (2022)

flag Pojdi na slovensko stran članka / Go to the article page in Slovene


The effects of general anesthesia on cognition in children – a review

Vesna Mlinarič Lešnik, Janez Bregar & Ivana Kreft Hausmeister

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 89  |  flagWritten in Slovene.  |  Published: May 27, 2022

pdf https://doi.org/10.20419/2022.31.548  |  Cited By: CrossRef (0)

Abstract: The theoretical models of pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for cognitive sequelae after general anesthesia are multifactorial, as most general anesthetics impact several neurotransmitter systems of the nervous system. Animal models show, that during periods of maturation neurons are more susceptible to damage from general anesthetics, while mature neurons are largely unaffected. Research done in children is mostly based on retrospective studies and their results tend to show that general anesthesia mostly impairs cognitive abilities, that are functionally under intense development at the time (for example speech between the ages of 2 and 4) although current data does not allow for definite conclusions about cognitive functions being affected. Most reported cognitive deficits are subclinical but tend to be present across a wide range of cognitive functions. However, no effect of general anesthesia on general intelligence has been noted. Cognitive consequences after general anesthesia in children are diverse and can be intertwined with the underlying condition that led to the use of general anesthesia. Current clinical guidelines suggest general anesthesia in children should be used in the lowest and shortest effective dose. The consensus is that withholding necessary treatments under general anesthesia would bring more harm than exposure to general anesthesia, therefore in clinical practice attention must be given to potential cognitive deficits in children who underwent procedures under general anesthesia.

Keywords: general anesthesia, child development, cognition, children


Cite:
Mlinarič Lešnik, V., Bregar, J., & Kreft Hausmeister, I. (2022). Učinki splošne anestezije na kognitivne sposobnosti pri otrocih – pregledni članek [The effects of general anesthesia on cognition in children – a review]. Psihološka obzorja, 31, 33–49. https://doi.org/10.20419/2022.31.548


Reference list


Andropoulos, D. B., Ahmad, H. B., Haq, T., Brady, K., Stayer, S. A., Meador, M. R., Hunter, J. V., Rivera, C., Voigt, R. G., Turchich, M., He, C. Q., Shekerdemian, L. S., Dickerson, H. A., Fraser, C. D., McKenzie, E. D., Heinle, J. S., & Easley, R. B. (2014). The association between brain injury, perioperative anesthetic exposure, and 12-month neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery: A retrospective cohort study. Pediatric Anesthesia, 24(3), 266–274. CrossRef

Backeljauw, B., Holland, S. K., Altaye, M., & Loepke, A. W. (2015). Cognition and brain structure following early childhood surgery with anesthesia. Pediatrics, 136(1), e1–e12. CrossRef

Bartels, M., Althoff, R. R., & Boomsma, D. I. (2009). Anesthesia and cognitive performance in children: No evidence for a causal relationship. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 12(3), 246–253. CrossRef

Bear, M., Connors, B., & Paradiso, M. A. (2016). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain (4th ed). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Birajdar, S., Rao, S., & McMichael, J. (2017). Neurodevelopmental outcomes of neonates undergoing surgery under general anesthesia for malrotation of intestines. Early Human Development, 109, 32–36. CrossRef

Block, R. I., Thomas, J. J., Bayman, E. O., Choi, J. Y., Kimble, K. K., & Todd, M. M. (2012). Are anesthesia and surgery during infancy associated with altered academic performance during childhood? Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 117(3), 494–503. CrossRef

Bong, C. L., Allen, J. C., & Kim, J. T. S. (2013). The effects of exposure to general anesthesia in infancy on academic performance at age 12. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 117(6), 1419–1428. CrossRef

Brambrink, A. M., Evers, A. S., Avidan, M. S., Farber, N. B., Smith, D. J., Martin, L. D., Dissen, G. A., Creeley, C. E., & Olney, J. W. (2012). Ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis in the fetal and neonatal rhesus macaque brain. Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 116(2), 372–384. CrossRef

Bregant, T. (2012). Razvoj, rast in zorenje možganov. Psihološka obzorja, 2(21), 51–60. CrossRef

Castellheim, A., Lundström, S., Molin, M., Kuja-Halkola, R., Gillberg, C., & Gillberg, C. (2018). The role of general anesthesia on traits of neurodevelopmental disorders in a Swedish cohort of twins. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59(9), 966–972. CrossRef

Clausen, N. G., Pedersen, D. A., Pedersen, J. K., Møller, S. E., Grosen, D., Christensen, K., Hansen, T. G., & Wehby, G. L. (2017). Oral clefts and academic performance in adolescence: The impact of anesthesia-related neurotoxicity, timing of surgery, and type of oral clefts. The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 54(4), 371–380. CrossRef

Creeley, C., Dikranian, K., Dissen, G., Martin, L., Olney, J., & Brambrink, A. (2013). Propofol-induced apoptosis of neurones and oligodendrocytes in fetal and neonatal rhesus macaque brain. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(1), i29–i38. CrossRef

Davidson, A. J., Disma, N., De Graaff, J. C., Withington, D. E., Dorris, L., Bell, G., Stargatt, R., Bellinger, D. C., Schuster, T., Arnup, S. J., Hardy, P., Hunt, R. W., Takagi, M. J., Giribaldi, G., Hartmann, P. L., Salvo, I., Morton, N. S., von Ungern-Sternberg, B. S., Locatelli, B. G., . . . McCann, M. E. (2016). Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age after general anaesthesia and awake-regional anaesthesia in infancy (GAS): An international multicentre, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 387(10015), 239–250. CrossRef

Deng, M., Hofacer, R. D., Jiang, C., Joseph, B., Hughes, E. A., Jia, B., Danzer, S. C., & Loepke, A. W. (2014). Brain regional vulnerability to anaesthesia-induced neuroapoptosis shifts with age at exposure and extends into adulthood for some regions. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 113(3), 443–451. CrossRef

DiMaggio, C., Sun, L. S., Kakavouli, A., Byrne, M. W., & Li, G. (2009). A retrospective cohort study of the association of anesthesia and hernia repair surgery with behavioral and developmental disorders in young children. Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, 21(4), 286. CrossRef

DiMaggio, C., Sun, L., & Li, G. (2011). Early childhood exposure to anesthesia and risk of developmental and behavioral disorders in a sibling birth cohort. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 113(5), 1143–1151. CrossRef

Doberschuetz, N., Dewitz, R., Rolle, U., Schlösser, R., & Allendorf, A. (2016). Follow-up of children with gastrointestinal malformations and postnatal surgery and anesthesia: Evaluation at two years of age. Neonatology, 110(1), 8–13. CrossRef

Dwyer, G. M., Walker, K., Baur, L., & Badawi, N. (2016). Developmental outcomes and physical activity behaviour in children post major surgery: An observational study. BMC Pediatrics, 16(1), članek 123. CrossRef

Fan, Q., Cai, Y., Chen, K., & Li, W. (2013). Prognostic study of sevoflurane-based general anesthesia on cognitive function in children. Journal of Anesthesia, 27(4), 493–499. CrossRef

Feng, Y. P., Yang, T. S., Chung, C. H., Chien, W. C., & Wong, C. S. (2020). Early childhood general anesthesia exposure associated with later developmental delay: A national population-based cohort study. PLOS ONE, 15(9), članek e0238289. CrossRef

Flick, R. P., Katusic, S. K., Colligan, R. C., Wilder, R. T., Voigt, R. G., Olson, M. D., Sprung, J., Weaver, A. L., Schroeder, D. R., & Warner, D. O. (2011). Cognitive and behavioral outcomes after early exposure to anesthesia and surgery. Pediatrics, 128(5), e1053–e1061. CrossRef

Garcia Guerra, G., Robertson, C. M., Alton, G. Y., Joffe, A. R., Cave, D. A., Yasmin, F., Dinu, I. A., Creighton, D. E., Ross, D. B., & Rebeyka, I. M. (2014). Neurotoxicity of sedative and analgesia drugs in young infants with congenital heart disease: 4-year follow-up. Pediatric Anesthesia, 24(3), 257–265. CrossRef

Glatz, P., Sandin, R. H., Pedersen, N. L., Bonamy, A. K., Eriksson, L. I., & Granath, F. (2017). Association of anesthesia and surgery during childhood with long-term academic performance. JAMA Pediatrics, 171(1), članek e163470. CrossRef

Grabowski, J., Goldin, A., Arthur, L. G., Beres, A. L., Guner, Y. S., Hu, Y. Y., Kawaguchi, A. L., Kelley-Quon, L. I., McAteer, J. P., Miniati, D., Renaud, E. J., Ricca, R., Slidell, M. B., Smith, C. A., Sola, J. E., Sømme, S., Downard, C. D., Gosain, A., Valusek, P., . . . Dasgupta, R. (2021). The effects of early anesthesia on neurodevelopment: A systematic review. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 56(5), 851–861. CrossRef

Graham, M. R., Brownell, M., Chateau, D. G., Dragan, R. D., Burchill, C., & Fransoo, R. R. (2016). Neurodevelopmental assessment in kindergarten in children exposed to general anesthesia before the age of 4 years: A retrospective matched cohort study. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 125(4), 667–677. CrossRef

Hansen, T. G., Pedersen, J. K., Henneberg, S. W., Morton, N. S., & Christensen, K. (2013). Educational outcome in adolescence following pyloric stenosis repair before 3 months of age: A nationwide cohort study. Pediatric Anesthesia, 23(10), 883–890. CrossRef

Hansen, T. G., Pedersen, J. K., Henneberg, S. W., Pedersen, D. A., Murray, J. C., Morton, N. S., & Christensen, K. (2011). Academic performance in adolescence after inguinal hernia repair in infancy: A nationwide cohort study. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 114(5), 1076–1085. CrossRef

Hofacer, R. D., Deng, M., Ward, C. G., Joseph, B., Hughes, E. A., Jiang, C., Danzer, S. C., & Loepke, A. W. (2013). Cell age-specific vulnerability of neurons to anesthetic toxicity. Annals of Neurology, 73(6), 695–704. CrossRef

Hu, D., Flick, R. P., Zaccariello, M. J., Colligan, R. C., Katusic, S. K., Schroeder, D. R., Hanson, A. C., Buenvenida, S. L., Gleich, S. J., Wilder, R. T., Sprung J., & Warner, D. O. (2017). Association between exposure of young children to procedures requiring general anesthesia and learning and behavioral outcomes in a population-based birth cohort. Anesthesiology, 127(2), 227–240. CrossRef

Huang, C., Mårtensson, J., Gögenur, I., & Asghar, M. S. (2018). Exploring postoperative cognitive dysfunction and delirium in noncardiac surgery using MRI: A systematic review. Neural Plasticity, 2018. CrossRef

Ing, C. H., DiMaggio, C. J., Malacova, E., Whitehouse, A. J., Hegarty, M. K., Feng, T., Brady, J. E., von Ungern-Sternberg, B. S., Davidson, A. J., Wall, M. M., Wood, A. J. J., Li, G., & Sun, L. S. (2014). Comparative analysis of outcome measures used in examining neurodevelopmental effects of early childhood anesthesia exposure. Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 120(6), 1319–1332. CrossRef

Ing, C., DiMaggio, C., Whitehouse, A., Hegarty, M. K., Brady, J., von Ungern-Sternberg, B. S., Davidson, A., Wood, A. J. J., Li, G., & Sun, L. S. (2012). Long-term differences in language and cognitive function after childhood exposure to anesthesia. Pediatrics, 130(3), e476–e485. CrossRef

Ing, C., Hegarty, M. K., Perkins, J. W., Whitehouse, A. J., DiMaggio, C. J., Sun, M., Andrews, H., Li, G., Sun, L. S., & von Ungern-Sternberg, B. S. (2017). Duration of general anaesthetic exposure in early childhood and long-term language and cognitive ability. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, 119(3), 532–540. CrossRef

Ing, C., Jackson, W. M., Zaccariello, M. J., Goldberg, T. E., McCann, M., Grobler, A., Davidson, A., Sun, L., Li, G., & Warner, D. O. (2021). Prospectively assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in studies of anaesthetic neurotoxicity in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 126(2), 433–444. CrossRef

Jevtovic-Todorovic, V., Absalom, A. R., Blomgren, K., Brambrink, A., Crosby, G., Culley, D. J., Fiskum, G., Giffard, R. G., Herold, K. F., Loepke, A. W., Ma, D., Orser, B. A., Panel, E., Slikker, W., Soriano, S. G., Stratmann, G., Wutskits, L., Xie, Z., & Hemmings, H. C. (2013). Anaesthetic neurotoxicity and neuroplasticity: An expert group report and statement based on the BJA Salzburg Seminar. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 111(2), 143–151. CrossRef

Kalkman, C. J., Peelen, L., Moons, K. G., Veenhuizen, M., Bruens, M., Sinnema, G., & de Jong, T. P. (2009). Behavior and development in children and age at the time of first anesthetic exposure. Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 110(4), 805–812. CrossRef

Ko, W. R., Huang, J. Y., Chiang, Y. C., Nfor, O. N., Ko, P. C., Jan, S. R., Chia-Chi, L., Hui-Chin, C., Long-Yau, L., & Liaw, Y. P. (2015). Risk of autistic disorder after exposure to general anaesthesia and surgery: A nationwide, retrospective matched cohort study. European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 32(5), 303–310. CrossRef

Ko, W. R., Liaw, Y. P., Huang, J. Y., Zhao, D. H., Chang, H. C., Ko, P. C., Yan, S. R., Nfor, O. N., Chiang, Y. C., & Lin, L. Y. (2014). Exposure to general anesthesia in early life and the risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder development: A nationwide, retrospective matched-cohort study. Pediatric Anesthesia, 24(7), 741–748. CrossRef

Koh, J. H., Daniel, P., & Bong, C. L. (2019). Parental perception on the effects of early exposure to anaesthesia on neurodevelopment. Anaesthesia, 74(1), 51–56. CrossRef

Lee, J. R., & Loepke, A. W. (2018). Does pediatric anesthesia cause brain damage? - Addressing parental and provider concerns in light of compelling animal studies and seemingly ambivalent human data. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 71(4), 255–273. CrossRef

McCann, M. E., De Graaff, J. C., Dorris, L., Disma, N., Withington, D., Bell, G., Grobler, A., Stargatt, R., Hunt, R. W., Sheppard, S. I., Marmor, J., Giribaldi, G., Bellinger, D. C., Hartman, P. L., Hardy, P., Frawley, G., Izzo, F., von Ungern-Sternberg, B. S., Lynn, A., ... Davidson, A. J. (2019). Neurodevelopmental outcome at 5 years of age after general anaesthesia or awake-regional anaesthesia in infancy (GAS): An international, multicentre, randomised, controlled equivalence trial. The Lancet, 393(10172), 664–677. CrossRef

Morriss, F. H., Saha, S., Bell, E. F., Colaizy, T. T., Stoll, B. J., Hintz, S. R., Shankaran, S., Vohr, B. R., Hamrick, S. E. G., Pappas, A., Jones, P. M., Carlo, W. A., Laptook, A. R., Van Meurs, K. P., Sanchez, P. J., Hale, E. C., Newman, N. S., Das, A., & Higgins, R. D. (2014). Surgery and neurodevelopmental outcome of very low-birth-weight infants. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(8), 746–754. CrossRef

Mrkobrada, M., Hill, M. D., Chan, M. T. V., Sigamani, A., Cowan, D., Kurz, A., Sessler, D. I., Jacka, M., Graham, M., Dasgupta, M., Dunlop, V., Emery, D. J., Gulka, I., Guyatt, G., Heels-Ansdell, D., Murkin, J., Pettit, S., Sahlas, D. J., Sharma, M., . . . Devereaux, P. J. (2016). Covert stroke after non-cardiac surgery: A prospective cohort study. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, 117(2), 191–197. CrossRef

Naumann, H. L., Haberkern, C. M., Pietila, K. E., Birgfeld, C. B., Starr, J. R., Kapp-Simon, K. A., Hopper, R. A., & Speltz, M. L. (2012). Duration of exposure to cranial vault surgery: Associations with neurodevelopment among children with single-suture craniosynostosis. Pediatric Anesthesia, 22(11), 1053–1061. CrossRef

Nestor, K. A., Zeidan, M., Boncore, E., Richardson, A., Alex, G., Weiss, M., & Islam, S. (2017). Neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants undergoing general anesthesia. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 52(6), 895–900. CrossRef

O'Leary, J. D., Janus, M., Duku, E., Wijeysundera, D. N., To, T., Li, P., Maynes, J. T., & Crawford, M. W. (2016). A population-based study evaluating the association between surgery in early life and child development at primary school entry. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 125(2), 272–279. CrossRef

O'Leary, J. D., Janus, M., Duku, E., Wijeysundera, D. N., To, T., Li, P., Maynes, J. T., Faraoni, D., & Crawford, M. W. (2019). Influence of surgical procedures and general anesthesia on child development before primary school entry among matched sibling pairs. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(1), 29–36. CrossRef

Patel, N., Banahan, C., Janus, J., Horsfield, M. A., Cox, A., Li, X., Cappellugola, L., Colman, J., Egan, V., Garrard, P., & Chung, E. M. (2019). Perioperative cerebral microbleeds after adult cardiac surgery. Stroke, 50(2), 336–343. CrossRef

Paule, M. G., Li, M., Allen, R. R., Liu, F., Zou, X., Hotchkiss, C., Hanig, J. P., Patterson, T. A., Slikker, W., & Wang, C. (2011). Ketamine anesthesia during the first week of life can cause long-lasting cognitive deficits in rhesus monkeys. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 33(2), 220–230. CrossRef

Petráčková, I., Zach, J., Borský, J., Černý, M., Hacklová, R., Tvrdek, M., & Janota, J. (2015). Early and late operation of cleft lip and intelligence quotient and psychosocial development in 3-7 years. Early Human Development, 91(2), 149–152. CrossRef

Poor Zamany Nejat Kermany, M., Roodneshin, F., Ahmadi Dizgah, N., Gerami, E., & Riahi, E. (2016). Early childhood exposure to short periods of sevoflurane is not associated with later, lasting cognitive deficits. Pediatric Anesthesia, 26(10), 1018–1025. CrossRef

Rabinstein, A. A., & Keegan, M. T. (2013). Neurologic complications of anesthesia: A practical approach. Neurology: Clinical Practice, 3(4), 295–304. CrossRef

Rang, H. P., & Dale, M. M. (2012). Rang and Dale's pharmacology. Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. CrossRef

Rappaport, B. A., Suresh, S., Hertz, S., Evers, A. S., & Orser, B. A. (2015). Anesthetic neurotoxicity--clinical implications of animal models. The New England Journal of Medicine, 372(9), 796–797. CrossRef

Saunders, N. R., Liddelow, S. A., & Dziegielewska, K. M. (2012). Barrier mechanisms in the developing brain. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 3, članek 46. CrossRef

Sedighnejad, A., Soltanipour, S., Saberi, A., Kousha, M., Bidabadi, E., Biazar, G., & Naderi, N. (2020). Risk of attention deficit hyper activity disorder after early exposure to general anesthesia; A case control study. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, 30(3). CrossRef

Sinner, B., Becke, K., & Engelhard, K. (2014). General anaesthetics and the developing brain: An overview. Anaesthesia, 69(9), 1009–1022. CrossRef

Sprung, J., Flick, R. P., Katusic, S. K., Colligan, R. C., Barbaresi, W. J., Bojanić, K., Welch, T. L., Olson, M. D., Hanson, A. C., Schroeder, D. R., Wilder, R. T., & Warner, D. O. (2012). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder after early exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 87(2), 120–129. CrossRef

Stratmann, G., Lee, J., Sall, J. W., Lee, B. H., Alvi, R. S., Shih, J., Rowe, A. M., Ramage, T. M., Chang, F. L., Alexander, T. G., Lempert, D. K., Lin, N., Siu, K. H., Elphick, S. A., Wong, A., Schnair, C. I., Vu, A. F., Chan, J. T., Zai, H., . . . Ghetti, S. (2014). Effect of general anesthesia in infancy on long-term recognition memory in humans and rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(10), 2275–2287. CrossRef

Stratmann, G., Sall, J. W., May, L. D., Loepke, A. W., & Lee, M. T. (2010). Beyond anesthetic properties: The effects of isoflurane on brain cell death, neurogenesis, and long-term neurocognitive function. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 110(2), 431–437. CrossRef

Sun, L. S., Li, G., Miller, T. L., Salorio, C., Byrne, M. W., Bellinger, D. C., Ing, C., Park, R., Radcliffe, J., Hays, S. R., DiMaggio, C. J., Cooper, T. J., Rauh, V., Maxwell, L. G., Youn, A., & McGowan, F. X. (2016). Association between a single general anesthesia exposure before age 36 months and neurocognitive outcomes in later childhood. Jama, 315(21), 2312–2320. CrossRef

Taghon, T. A., Masunga, A. N., Small, R. H., & Kashou, N. H. (2015). A comparison of functional magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with and without a history of early exposure to general anesthesia. Pediatric Anesthesia, 25(3), 239–246. CrossRef

Tsai, C. J., Lee, C. T. C., Liang, S. H. Y., Tsai, P. J., Chen, V. C. H., & Gossop, M. (2018). Risk of ADHD after multiple exposures to general anesthesia: A nationwide retrospective cohort study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 22(3), 229–239. CrossRef

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2017). FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA review results in new warnings about using general anesthetics and sedation drugs in young children and pregnant women.

Walkden, G. J., Gill, H., Davies, N. M., Peters, A. E., Wright, I., & Pickering, A. E. (2020). Early childhood general anesthesia and neurodevelopmental outcomes in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort. Anesthesiology, 133(5), 1007–1020. CrossRef

Walkden, G. J., Pickering, A. E., & Gill, H. (2019). Assessing long-term neurodevelopmental outcome following general anesthesia in early childhood: Challenges and opportunities. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 128(4), 681–694. CrossRef

Walker, K., Badawi, N., Halliday, R., Stewart, J., Sholler, G. F., Winlaw, D. S., Sherwood, M., & Holland, A. J. (2012). Early developmental outcomes following major noncardiac and cardiac surgery in term infants: A population-based study. The Journal of Pediatrics, 161(4), 748–752. CrossRef

Warner, D. O., Zaccariello, M. J., Katusic, S. K., Schroeder, D. R., Hanson, A. C., Schulte, P. J., Buenvenida, S. L., Gleich, S. J., Wilder, R. T., Sprung, J., Hu, D., Voigt, R. G., Paule, M. G., Chelonis, J. J., & Flick, R. P. (2018). Neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes after exposure of young children to procedures requiring general anesthesia: The Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids (MASK) study. Anesthesiology, 129(1), 89–105. CrossRef

Wilder, R. T., Flick, R. P., Sprung, J., Katusic, S. K., Barbaresi, W. J., Mickelson, C., Gleich, S. J., Schroeder, D. R., Weaver, A. L., & Warner, D. O. (2009). Early exposure to anesthesia and learning disabilities in a population-based birth cohort. Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 110(4), 796–804. CrossRef

Yan, J., Li, Y. R., Zhang, Y., Lu, Y., & Jiang, H. (2014). Repeated exposure to anesthetic ketamine can negatively impact neurodevelopment in infants: A prospective preliminary clinical study. Journal of Child Neurology, 29(10), 1333–1338. CrossRef

Zhou, P., Zhang, C., Huang, G., Hu, Y., Ma, W., & Yu, C. (2021). The effect of sevoflurane anesthesia for dental procedure on neurocognition in children: A prospective, equivalence, controlled trial. BMC Pediatrics, 21(1), članek 177. CrossRef

Zhu, C., Gao, J., Karlsson, N., Li, Q., Zhang, Y., Huang, Z., Li, H., Kuhn, H. G., & Blomgren, K. (2010). Isoflurane anesthesia induced persistent, progressive memory impairment, caused a loss of neural stem cells, and reduced neurogenesis in young, but not adult, rodents. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 30(5), 1017–1030. CrossRef


« Back to Volume 31 (2022)