This site uses cookies for user authentication, optional permanent login and monitoring the number of page views (Google Analytics).
Do you agree with cookies being used in accordance with our Privacy policy? You can change your decision regarding the use of cookies on the Privacy page.

I want to know more

Horizons of Psychology :: Psihološka obzorja

Scientific and Professional Psychological Journal of the Slovenian Psychologists' Association

Indexed in:
Academic OneFile

Member of DOAJ and CrossRef



My Account

Most viewed articles


« Back to Volume 31 (2022)

flag Pojdi na slovensko stran članka / Go to the article page in Slovene

Social emotional health, life satisfaction and school climate of junior school students in the context of Covid-19 pandemic crisis: Longitudinal research in Lithuania

Ala Petrulytė, Virginija Guogienė & Vaiva Rimienė

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 74  |  flagWritten in English.  |  Published: September 16, 2022

pdf  |  Cited By: CrossRef (1)

Abstract: Research on students’ social-emotional health is important for quality learning and well-being at school, especially during the challenges of the Covid-19 pandemic times. Purpose: to investigate younger school-age students’ social-emotional health, satisfaction with life, and perceived school climate in the Covid-19 pandemic crisis and the predominance of distance learning by longitudinal research strategy. Method: Social and Emotional Health Survey-Primary (SEHS-P; Furlong et al., 2013) and Multidimensional Students Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS; Huebner, 2001). The sample was 84 junior school-age students (10 –12 years old) from Lithuanian schools. The results and conclusions: The first months of the Covid-19 pandemic crisis led to the deterioration of social-emotional health and satisfaction of younger school-age students. However, after 8 months of the Covid-19 pandemic crisis (re-test), some improvements in students’ emotional health, satisfaction with life, and classroom microclimate were observed. No gender-based differences were identified among students. The results revealed positive and significant correlations between the younger school-age students’ social-emotional health, satisfaction with life, and perceived school climate; the conducted regression analysis showed that family plays a significant role in junior school students’ social-emotional health. The teachers’ support for distance learning students could have improved their classroom microclimate and the knowledge of students’ health status could have helped them to adapt to distance learning more effectively during the Covid-19 pandemic crisis.

Keywords: social-emotional health, satisfaction with life, school microclimate, younger school-age students, longitudinal research

Petrulytė, a., Guogienė, V., & Rimienė, V. (2022). Social emotional health, life satisfaction and school climate of junior school students in the context of Covid-19 pandemic crisis: Longitudinal research in Lithuania. Psihološka obzorja, 31, 482–492.

Reference list

Aymerich, M., Cladellas, R., Castelló, A., Casas, F., & Cunill, M. (2021). The evolution of life satisfaction throughout childhood and adolescence: Differences in young people's evaluations according to age and gender. Child Indicators Research, 14(6), 2347–2369. CrossRef

Barkauskienė, R., & Zacharevičienė, A. (2019). Darbas su vaikais, turinčiais elgesio ir emocinių sunkumų bei sutrikimų [Working with children suffering from behavioural and emotional difficulties and disorders]. Nacionalinė Švietimo Agentūra.

Breidokienė, R., Jusienė, R., Urbonas, V., Praninskienė, R., & Girdzijauskienė, S. (2021). Sedentary behavior among 6–14-year-old children during the COVID-19 lockdown and its relation to physical and mental health. Healthcare, 9, Article 756. CrossRef

Boman, P., Furlong, M. J., Shochet, I., Lillies, E., & Jones, C. (2009). Optimism and the school context. In M. J. Furlong, R. Gilman, & S. Huebner (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 51–64). Routledge. CrossRef

Bono, G., & Froh, J. (2009). Gratitude in school: Benefit to students and schools. In M. Furlong, R. Gilman, & S. Huebner (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 77–88). Routledge.

Brissette, I., Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (2002). The role of optimism in social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 102–111. CrossRef

Carver, S. C., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 879–889. CrossRef

Coalition for Psychology, & Schools and Education. (2019, December). Report on the Teacher Needs Survey 2019. American Psychological Association, Center for Psychology in Schools and Education.

Compas, B. (1993). Promoting positive mental health in adolescence. In S. G. Millstein, A. C. Peterson, & E. O. Nightingale (Eds.), Promoting the health of adolescents (pp. 159–179). Oxford University Press.

Daniunaite, I., Truskauskaite-Kuneviciene, I., Thoresen, S., Zelviene, P., & Kauzlauskas, E. (2021). Adolescents amid the COVID-19 pandemic: A prospective study of psychological functioning. Child and Adolescents Psychiatry and Mental Health, 15, Article 45. CrossRef

Diener, E. (1994). Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research, 31(2), 103–157. CrossRef

Emmons, R. A. (2007). Thanks! How the new science of gratitude can make you happier. Houghton Mifflin.

Feather, N. T. (1962). The study of persistence. Psychological Bulletin, 59, 94–115. CrossRef

Froh, J. J., Fan, J., Emmons, R. A., Bono, G., Huebner, E. S., & Watkins, P. (2011). Measuring gratitude in youth: Assessing the psychometric properties of adult gratitude scales in children and adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 23, 311–324. CrossRef

Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T. L., O'Malley, M. D., & Rebelez, J. (2013). Preliminary development of the Positive Experiences at School Scale for elementary school students. Child Indicators Research, 6, 753–775. CrossRef

Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T., Smith, D. C., & O'Malley, M. D. (2014). Preliminary development and validation of the Social Emotional Health Survey for secondary school students. Social Indicators Research, 117, 1011–1032. CrossRef

Gajdosova, E., & Majercakova Albertova, S. (2019) Validation of International School Climate Surveys in Slovakia. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 8(1), 14–18. CrossRef

Greenspoon, P. J., & Saklofske, D. H. (1997). Validity and reliability of the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale with Canadian children. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 15(2), 138–155. CrossRef

Huebner, E. S. (1994). Preliminary development and validation of a Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale for children. Psychological Assessment, 6(2), 149–158. CrossRef

Huebner, E. S. (2001). Manual for the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale. University of South Carolina, Department of Psychology.

Huebner, E. S., Gilman, R., & Laughlin, J. E. (1999). A multimethod investigation of the multidimensionality of children's well-being reports: Discriminant validity of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Social Indicators Research, 46(1), 1–22. CrossRef

Jusienė, R., Baukienė, E., & Breidokienė, R. (2021). Risk of behavioural and emotional disorders in Lithuanian school aged children as assessed with SDQ during the second lockdown due to COVID-19. Psichologija, 64, 77–85. CrossRef

Jusienė, R., Būdienė, V., Gintilienė, G., Girdzijauskienė, S., Stonkuvienė, I., Žėkaitė, J., Adomaitytė Subačienė, I., Baukienė, E., Breidokienė, R., Buzaitytė-Kašalynienė, K., Dragūnevičius, K., Grabauskaitė, V., Praninskienė, R., Schoroškienė, V., Speičytė-Ruschhoff, E., & Urbonas, V. (2021). Nuotolinis vaikų ugdymas pandemijos dėl Covid-19 metu: grėsmės bei galimybės ekosisteminiu požiūriu [Distance Education of Children During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Threats and Opportunities from an Ecosystem Perspective]. Vilniaus universiteto leidykla. CrossRef

Kalpokienė, V. (2005). Paauglių raida ir psichikos sutrikimai Ego psichologijos požiūriu [An attitude of ego psychology towards development and mental disorders of adolescents]. Psichologija, 31, 75–85. CrossRef

Kernagė, A., Marcikonytė, R., Juzonienė, J., Eljašovienė, M., & Maslauskienė, V. (2021). COVID-19 pasekmių psichikos sveikatai mažinimas: Vertinimo ataskaita [COVID-19 reducing mental health implications: Assessment report].

Kuhl, J. (1996). Who controls whom when "I control myself"? Psychological Inquiry, 7(1), 61–68. CrossRef

La Salle, T. P., & Meyers, J. P. (2014). The Georgia Elementary School Climate Survey. Georgia Department of Education.

Lewinsohn, P., Redner, J., & Seeley, J. (1991). The relationship between life satisfaction and psychosocial variables: New perspectives. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwartz (Eds.), Subjective well-being (pp. 141–169). Plenum Press.

Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(3), 616–628. CrossRef

Nunes El Achkar, A. M., Romera Leme, A. B., Benevides Soares, A., & Mattar Yunes, M. A. (2019). Life satisfaction and academic performance of elementary school students. Psico-USF, 24(2), 323–335. CrossRef

Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2009). Strengths of character in schools. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 65–76). Routledge.

Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603–619. CrossRef

Pavot, W. G., Diener, E., Colvin, C. R., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57 (1), 149–161. CrossRef

Peterson, C., & Park, N. (2006). Character strengths in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 1149–1154. CrossRef

Peterson, C., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full life versus the empty life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6(1), 25–41. CrossRef

Petlák, E. (2006). Klíma škola a klíma triedy [School and classroom climate]. Iris.

Petrulytė, A., & Guogienė, V. (2018). Adolescents' social emotional health and empathy in a Lithuanian sample. International Journal of Psychology: Biopsychosocial Approach, 22, 69–93. CrossRef

Petrulytė, A., & Guogienė, V. (2020). Social emotional health of younger school-age students in the context of (non) crisis. In E. Gajdošová, M. Madro, & M. Valihorová (Eds.), Duševné zdravie v školách v kontexte kríz a krízovej intervencie: zborník príspevkov z online medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencie [Psychological health in schools in the context of crisis and crisis intervention: Proceedings of the online conference] (pp. 9–22). IPV Inštitút priemyselnej výchovy.

Proctor, C. L., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2009). Youth life satisfaction: A review of the literature. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5), 583–630. CrossRef

Prucha, J., Walterová, J., & Mareš, J. (1998). Pedagogický slovník [Pedagogical dictionary]. Portál.

Sarason, S. D. (1997). Forward. In R. Weissberg, T. P. Gullotta, R. L. Hampton, B. A. Ryan, & G. R. Adams (Eds.), Enhancing children's wellness: Vol. 8. (pp. ix–xi).

Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219–247. CrossRef

Srivastava, S., McGonigal, K. M., Richards, J. M., Butler, E. A., & Gross, J. J. (2006). Optimism in close relationships: How seeing things in a positive light makes them so. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 143–153. CrossRef

Telef, B. B. (2020). Hope and life satisfaction in elementary school students: Mediation role of affective experiences. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 4(2), 176–186. CrossRef

Terry, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1995). The relationship between self-concept and life satisfaction in children. Social Indicators Research, 35(1), 39–52. CrossRef

Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Guffey, S., & Higgins-D'Alessandro, A. (2013). A review of School Climate Research. Review of Educational Research, 83(3), 357–385. CrossRef

UNICEF (2020). Annual report 2020. Office of research – Innocenti.

Valantinas, A. (2009). Socialinis emocinis ugdymas. Kas tai? Kuo gali mums padėti? [Social emotional education: What is it? How can it help us?]. Švietimo problemos analizė, 10(38).

Veenhoven, R., Ehrhardt, J., Ho, M. S. D., & de Vries, A. (1993). Happiness in nations: Subjective appreciation of life in 56 nations 1946-1992. Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Volet, S. F. (1997). Cognitive and affective variables in academic learning: The significance of direction and effort in students' goals. Learning and Instruction, 7, 235–254. CrossRef

Wang, C., La Salle, T., Wu, C., Do, K. A., & Sullivan, K. E. (2018). School climate and parental involvement buffer the risk of peer victimization on suicidal thoughts and behaviors among Asian American middle school students. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 9(4), 296–307. CrossRef

Weber, M., & Ruch, W. (2012). The role of a good character in 12-year-old school students: Do character strengths matter in the classroom? Child Indicators Research, 5, 317–334. CrossRef

Wilkins, B., Boman, P., & Mergler, A. (2015). Positive psychological strengths and school engagement in primary school students. Cogent Education, 2(1), Article 1095680. CrossRef

Žukauskienė, R., Malinauskienė, O., & Erentaitė, R. (2011). Tėvų auklėjimo stiliaus ir emocinio intelekto sąsajos su vyresniųjų paauglių saviveiksmingumu bei saviverte pagal lytį [Effects of parenting styles and emotional intelligence on self-efficacy and self-esteem in late adolescence: Gender differences]. Psichologija, 44, 22–41. CrossRef

Cited By via CrossRef (1)

The COVID‐19 pandemic and adolescents' and young adults' experiences at school: A systematic narrative review
       Aprile D. Benner, Madeline K. Harrington, Carmen Kealy, Chidozie E. Nwafor
       Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2024

« Back to Volume 31 (2022)