This site uses cookies for user authentication, optional permanent login and monitoring the number of page views (Google Analytics).
Do you agree with cookies being used in accordance with our Privacy policy? You can change your decision regarding the use of cookies on the Privacy page.

I want to know more

Horizons of Psychology :: Psihološka obzorja

Scientific and Professional Psychological Journal of the Slovenian Psychologists' Association

Indexed in:
Academic OneFile

Member of DOAJ and CrossRef



My Account

Most viewed articles


« Back to Volume 32 (2023)

flag Pojdi na slovensko stran članka / Go to the article page in Slovene

Slovenian Version of the Deese–Roediger–McDermott Paradigm: A Normative and Exploratory Study

Jaša Černe & Urban Kordeš

pdf Full text (pdf)  |  Views: 189  |  flagWritten in English.  |  Published: February 22, 2023

pdf  |  Cited By: CrossRef (0)

Abstract: The research with the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm has accumulated substantial evidence for the reliable cross-cultural false memory effect. However, only a limited set of languages has had the benefit of receiving their own version of the DRM paradigm, let alone the corresponding normative data. In this study, we used 728 participants (594 women) to create the first Slovenian version of the DRM paradigm, and another 90 participants (66 women) to test its effectiveness in inducing false memories and conduct exploratory analyses. We are the first one to conduct a normative DRM study entirely online and among the few that measured reaction times (RTs) besides commonly employed accuracy measures. Overall, the participants recalled 69% of the list items and 14% of the critical lures, and additionally recognised 79% of the list items and 45% of the critical lures. The participants recalled and recognised list items as fast as critical lures and significantly faster than unrelated words. The study shows that false memories can be effectively explored by using the online format of the DRM paradigm. Future studies should investigate the relationship between RTs and accuracy measures, the relationship between recall and recognition, as well as the effects of the experimental environment on the results of the DRM studies in more detail. We hope that the provided material and its scrutiny will contribute to the progress in false memory research, especially in the Slovenian language environment.

Keywords: false memory, DRM paradigm, reaction time, online study, normative data

Černe, J., & Kordeš, U. (2023). Slovenian Version of the Deese–Roediger–McDermott Paradigm: A Normative and Exploratory Study. Psihološka obzorja, 32, 32–51.

Reference list

Albuquerque, P. B. (2005). Produção de evocações e reconhecimentos falsos em 100 listas de palavras associadas portuguesas [Production of false recalls and recognitions in 100 Portuguese associated word lists]. Laboratório de Psicologia, 3, 3–12. CrossRef

Algina, J., Keselman, H. J., & Penfield, R. D. (2005). An alternative to Cohen's standardized mean difference effect size: A robust parameter and confidence interval in the two independent groups case. Psychological Methods, 10(3), 317–328. CrossRef

Anastasi, J. S., De Leon, A., & Rhodes, M. G. (2005). Normative data for semantically associated Spanish word lists that create false memories. Behavior Research Methods, 37(4), 631–637. CrossRef

Anastasi, J. S., Rhodes, M. G., Marquez, S., & Velino, V. (2005). The incidence of false memories in native and non-native speakers. Memory, 13(8), 815–828. CrossRef

Arndt, J., & Gould, C. (2006). An examination of two-process theories of false recognition. Memory, 14(7), 814–833. CrossRef

Atkins, A. S., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (2008). False working memories? Semantic distortion in a mere 4 seconds. Memory and Cognition, 36(1), 74–81. CrossRef

Brainerd, C. J., & Reyna, V. F. (2002). Fuzzy-trace theory and false memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(5). CrossRef

Brainerd, C. J., & Reyna, V. F. (2005). The science of false memory. Oxford University Press. CrossRef

Brainerd, C. J., Yang, Y., Reyna, V. F., Howe, M. L., & Mills, B. A. (2008). Semantic processing in "associative" false memory. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 15(6), 1035–1053. CrossRef

Cabeza, R., & Lennartson, E. R. (2005). False memory across languages: Implicit associative response vs fuzzy trace views. Memory, 13(1), 1–5. CrossRef

Coane, J. H., McBride, D. M., Raulerson, B. A., & Jordan, J. S. (2007). False memory in a short-term memory task. Experimental Psychology, 54(1), 62–70. CrossRef

Dandurand, F., Shultz, T. R., & Onishi, K. H. (2008). Comparing online and lab methods in a problem-solving experiment. Behavior Research Methods, 40(2), 428–434. CrossRef

Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58(1), 17–22. CrossRef

Field, A. P., & Wilcox, R. R. (2017). Robust statistical methods: A primer for clinical psychology and experimental psychopathology researchers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 98, 19–38. CrossRef

Friedrich, S., Konietschke, F., & Pauly, M. (2019). Resampling-based analysis of multivariate data and repeated measures designs with the R package MANOVA.RM. R Journal, 11(2), 380–400. CrossRef

Friesen, K. B., Zhang, Z., Monaghan, P. G., Oliver, G. D., & Roper, J. A. (2020). All eyes on you: How researcher presence changes the way you walk. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1–8. CrossRef

Gallo, D. A. (2006). Associative illusions of memory: False memory research in DRM and related tasks. Psychology Press.

Gallo, D. A. (2010). False memories and fantastic beliefs: 15 years of the DRM illusion. Memory and Cognition, 38(7), 833–848. CrossRef

Gallo, D. A., & Roediger, H. L. (2002). Variability among word lists in eliciting memory illusions: Evidence for associative activation and monitoring. Journal of Memory and Language, 47(3), 469–497. CrossRef

Gallo, D. A., Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (2001). Associative false recognition occurs without strategic criterion shifts. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 8(3), 579–586. CrossRef

Göz, I. (2005). Word frequency effect in false memories. Psychological Reports, 96(3 Pt 2), 1095–1112. CrossRef

Haist, F., Shimamura, A. P., & Squire, L. R. (1992). On the relationship between recall and recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18(4), 691–702. CrossRef

Horoiță, A., & Opre, A. (2020). False memories: Romanian Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists of words. Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 24(2), 163–186. CrossRef

Howe, M. L. (2005). Children (but not adults) can inhibit false memories. Psychological Science, 16(12), 927–931. CrossRef

Iacullo, V. M., & Marucci, F. S. (2016). Normative data for Italian Deese/Roediger-McDermott lists. Behavior Research Methods, 48(1), 381–389. CrossRef

Johansson, M., & Stenberg, G. (2002). Inducing and reducing false memories: A Swedish version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43(5), 369–383. CrossRef

Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., & Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin, 114(1), 3–28. CrossRef

Johnson, M. K., & Raye, C. L. (1998). False memories and confabulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2(4), 137–145. CrossRef

Jou, J. (2008). Recall latencies, confidence, and output positions of true and false memories: Implications for recall and metamemory theories. Journal of Memory and Language, 58(4), 1049–1064. CrossRef

Jou, J., Matus, Y. E., Aldridge, J. W., Rogers, D. M., & Zimmerman, R. L. (2004). How similar is false recognition to veridical recognition objectively and subjectively? Memory and Cognition, 32(5), 824–840. CrossRef

Kent, G. H., & Rosanoff, A. J. (1910). A study of association in insanity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 67(1), 37–96. CrossRef

Lee, Y. S., Chiang, W. C., & Hung, H. C. (2008). Lexical association and false memory for words in two cultures. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 37(1), 49–58. CrossRef

Loftus, E. F. (1993). The reality of repressed memories. American Psychologist, 48(5), 518–537. CrossRef

Loftus, E., & Ketcham, K. (1991). Witness for the defense: The accused, the eyewitness, and the expert who puts memory on trial. St. Martin's Press.

Mair, P., & Wilcox, R. (2020). Robust statistical methods in R using the WRS2 package. Behavior Research Methods, 52(2), 464–488. CrossRef

Marmolejo, G., Diliberto-Macaluso, K. A., & Altarriba, J. (2009). False memory in bilinguals: Does switching languages increase false memories? American Journal of Psychology, 122(1), 1–16. CrossRef

McDermott, K. B., & Watson, J. M. (2001). The rise and fall of false recall: The impact of presentation duration. Journal of Memory and Language, 45(1), 160–176. CrossRef

Miyaji, Y., & Yama, H. (2002). Making Japanese lists which induce false memory at high probability for the DRM paradigm. The Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science, 21(1), 21–26.

Murre, J. M. J., Janssen, S. M. J., Rouw, R., & Meeter, M. (2013). The rise and fall of immediate and delayed memory for verbal and visuospatial information from late childhood to late adulthood. Acta Psychologica, 142(1), 96–107. CrossRef

Payne, J. D., Nadel, L., Allen, J. J. B., Thomas, K. G. F., & Jacobs, W. J. (2002). The effects of experimentally induced stress on false recognition. Memory, 10(1), 1–6. CrossRef

Peirce, J. W., Gray, J. R., Simpson, S., MacAskill, M. R., Höchenberger, R., Sogo, H., Kastman, E., & Lindeløv, J. (2019). PsychoPy2: Experiments in behavior made easy. Behavior Research Methods, 51(1), 195–203. CrossRef

R Core Team. (2022). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(4), 803–814. CrossRef

Russell, W. A., & Jenkins, J. J. (1954). The complete Minnesota norms for responses to 100 words from the Kent-Rosanoff Word Association Test (Tech. Rep. No. 11, Contract N8 ONR 66216, Office of Naval Research). University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus.

Schacter, D. L., & Addis, D. R. (2007). The cognitive neuroscience of constructive memory: Remembering the past and imagining the future. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 362(1481), 773–786. CrossRef

Stadler, M. A., Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1999). Norms for word lists that create false memories. Memory & Cognition, 27(3), 494–500. CrossRef

Stein, L. M., da Fonte Feix, L., & Rohenkohl, G. (2006). Avanços metodológicos no estudo das falsas memórias: Construção e normatização do procedimento de palavras associadas [Methodological advances in false memory research: Development and norming of DRM procedure]. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 19(2), 166–176. CrossRef

Thomas, A. K., & Sommers, M. S. (2005). Attention to item-specific processing eliminates age effects in false memories. Journal of Memory and Language, 52(1), 71–86. CrossRef

Tun, P. A., Wingfield, A., Rosen, M. J., & Blanchard, L. (1998). Response latencies for false memories: Gist-based processes in normal aging. Psychology and Aging, 13(2), 230–241. CrossRef

Ulatowska, J., & Olszewska, J. (2013). Creating associative memory distortions-A Polish adaptation of the DRM paradigm. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 44(4), 449–456. CrossRef

Zeelenberg, R., & Pecher, D. (2002). False memories and lexical decision: Even twelve primes do not cause long-term semantic priming. Acta Psychologica, 109(3), 269–284. CrossRef

« Back to Volume 32 (2023)