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Psihološka obzorja :: Horizons of Psychology

Znanstveno-strokovna psihološka revija Društva psihologov Slovenije

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« Nazaj na Letnik 30 (2021)

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Ali lahko vadba inhibicije ali preklapljanja izboljša kognitivne sposobnosti mladih na prehodu v odraslost?

Anja Podlesek, Marina Martinčević in Andrea Vranić

pdf Polno besedilo (pdf)  |  Ogledi: 37  |  flagNapisan v angleščini.  |  Objavljeno: 7. maj 2021

pdf https://doi.org/10.20419/2021.30.529  |  Citati: CrossRef (0)

Povzetek: Izvršilne funkcije omogočajo in podpirajo večino našega vsakdanjega kognitivnega delovanja. Med številnimi izvršilnimi funkcijami raziskovalci najpogosteje kot tri najbolj osnovne opredeljujejo posodabljanje informacij, inhibicijo in preklapljanje. Paradigme kognitivnega treninga predstavljajo način njihovega izboljševanja. Učinkovitost treninga posodabljanja informacij je že precej raziskana, v pričujoči raziskavi pa smo želele preučiti učinkovitost treningov inhibicije in preklapljanja. Mlade na prehodu v odraslost (študente psihologije) smo naključno razdelile v skupino, ki je z izvajanjem Simonove naloge trenirala inhibicijo (n = 36), in skupino, ki je s paradigmo preklapljanja med nalogami trenirala preklapljanje (n = 35). Obe skupini sta skozi štiri tedne izvedli dvanajst 20-minutnih treningov. Predtestna in naknadna merjenja so poleg kriterijskih, tj. treniranih nalog vključevala še naloge bližnjega transfera (tj. naloge, ki vključujejo trenirano funkcijo, a uporabljajo drugačne vrste dražljajev ali pravil odzivanja) in naloge daljnega transfera (tj. naloge, ki vključujejo netrenirane kognitivne funkcije). Nekatere od nalog je reševala tudi kontrolna skupina (n = 36). Pri obeh skupinah s treningom se je v času izboljšala učinkovitost reševanja kriterijske naloge, pri nalogah bližnjega in daljnega transfera pa ni bilo opaziti prepričljivega izboljšanja, ki bi ga lahko pripisali izključno treningu. Raziskava je opozorila na konceptualne težave treniranja izvršilnih funkcij, vezane na vzorec mladih nadpovprečno kognitivno sposobnih odraslih, motivacijske elemente treninga in vlogo izvršilnih funkcij v zahtevnih vsakodnevnih aktivnostih.

Ključne besede: kognitivni trening, izvršilne funkcije, inhibicija, preklapljanje


Citiraj:
Podlesek, A., Martinčević, M. in Vranić, A. (2021). Can inhibition or shifting training enhance cognitive abilities in emerging adults? Psihološka obzorja, 30, 138–152. https://doi.org/10.20419/2021.30.529


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